Diseases In Africa Pdf Latitude

Diseases in africa pdf latitude

Many infectious diseases have emerged or reemerged in Africa in the 21st century. Some of them are associated with newly discovered microorganisms such as Rickettsia felis and Tropheryma whipplei; others are known, historical diseases such as plague and cholera. In addition are diseases related to previously known microorganisms which recently have been involved for the first time in massive outbreaks with worldwide impacts such as Ebola virus, Zika virus and Chikungunya virus.

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Research on emerging infectious diseases needs to be identified as a priority. At the beginning of the 21st century, infectious diseases remain responsible for about one quarter of deaths worldwide, causing at least 10 million deaths per year, mainly in the tropical countries [1] , [2].

Emerging infectious diseases are a high burden on public health but have also an impact on global economies [3]. Their origin is generally connected to social and economic conditions as well as environmental and ecologic factors [3].

How Geography DOOMED Africa

A substantial risk of wildlife zoonotic and vector-borne emerging infectious diseases exists mainly at lower-latitude developing countries such as tropical Africa [3]. Emerging infectious diseases are mainly those that have recently appeared in a population or have already existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range [4].

Although much depends on the type of emerging infection, the development of modern rapid, sensitive and accurate methods of microorganism detection has played an important role in the diagnosis and identification of emerging infectious diseases, such as for the molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Tropheryma whipplei. Several factors of emergence have been identified: microbial adaptation and change, human susceptibility to infection, climate and weather, changing ecosystems, human demographics and behavior, economic development and land use, international travel and commerce, technology and industry, breakdown of public health measures, poverty and social inequality, war and famine, lack of political will and intent to harm [5].

Diseases in africa pdf latitude

Unfortunately, most of these factors are overrepresented in many countries of Africa. Thus, many emerging diseases are reported from or originated from Africa.

Top 10 Diseases in Africa – Most Deadly

Among the most important are HIV infection and malaria, which emerged from wild monkeys [6]. Finally, improved disease assessment through improved public health surveillance could also contribute to the apparent onset and reappearance of some diseases. Here we briefly describe new diseases and emerging or reemerging known diseases that have been involved in outbreaks since the beginning of the 21st century in Africa. Although most are zoonotic, some of them, such as T.

Africa can be seen as distinct from the rest of the world, and even from other parts of the developing world which are also affected by the emergence and reemergence of diseases. Most dangerous infectious agents that kill humans originate in Africa.

Diseases in africa pdf latitude

In addition, the difficulties with morbidity surveillance in Africa are well known. In the context of the multiple epidemics that have been recognized over the past decade, numerous assessments of surveillance systems have revealed problems essentially across the board [7].

Poverty and poor healthcare exacerbate health problems. African countries rank among the lowest in per-capita spending on health and the availability of physicians.

Diseases in africa pdf latitude

This means that Africa should be the number one priority in the world community's struggle against infectious diseases. Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Rickettsia felis was reported for the first time in the United States and was officially described in Before , the bacterium was mainly found in arthropods, especially in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, with a worldwide distribution.

It was also considered as a rare cause of rickettsial spotted fever transmitted by fleas. Only about 70 described human cases of infection due to R. A more consistent study, involving febrile and afebrile subjects, confirmed the role of R. The presence of R.

In Gabon, R.

Emerging infectious diseases in Africa in the 21st century

The bacterium was also detected in the rural area of Lastourville Overall, R. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are suspected to transmit the bacterium; this was strongly supported by a recent experimental model [16] , [17]. However, an experimental model remained to be developed to better determine its role. Moreover, the omnipresence of L.

Other rickettsial diseases also may be considered to be neglected and emerging diseases in Africa [19] : African tick-bite fever is more frequently being diagnosed among travellers returning from Africa [20]. Tropheryma whipplei is the agent of Whipple disease, a chronic disease mainly observed in white men about 50 years old.

The disease was first described in , but the bacterium was cultured only in [21] , [22].

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The high prevalence of asymptomatic carriage of T. No correlation was reported between the presence of T. Most of the cases were grouped in the same households. In addition, the same new T.

9. Meningitis

Overall, the data show that T. The examples of R. They also show that diagnostic tests are essential to improve care, and that targeted surveys have a role to play in providing insight into the causes of the fever in order to suggest the tests to be performed.

Plague has a remarkable place in history. Yersinia pestis has been involved in several pandemics. Among recent examples, an epidemic of bubonic plague emerged in Oran Algeria in June [28].

Child mortality, HIV and diseases in Afric

The last human cases of plague had occurred in this city in and in this country in More recently, in the central highlands of Madagascar, a man visiting Ankazobe district was bitten by a flea in August [29]. Within a week, he developed malaria-like symptoms. While travelling to the eastern coast, he took a public taxi to reach the capital, where he died. A week later, an epidemic was officially confirmed. The infection of more than confirmed, probable and suspected cases was reported in November Although the disease can be treated with antibiotics if detected early, it is worth noting that more than people have died [29].

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Overall, the fact that there was a plague outbreak in Madagascar is not astonishing. Indeed, there is an ongoing epizootic that leads to an annual emergence of human infections [29].

This emergence is attributed to seasonal ecologic conditions that cause a decrease in rat populations and then lead fleas to feed directly on humans. The surprising features of this epidemic are that it appeared earlier than normal; it was predominantly a pneumonic form; and it hit the capital [29].

Diseases in africa pdf latitude

It is not just bad luck that this plague outbreak emerged in a country with an extremely fragile health system [29]. Indeed, poor access to healthcare, the lack of rapid diagnostic tests in many health facilities, the missing link between communities and the frontline health system and national health authorities as well as weakness of supply chains and infrastructure throughout the country are all factors that favour the spread of the bacterium, resulting in a high mortality rate from a treatable disease [29].

Cholera, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, is reemerging in Africa as a result of limited access to drinking water and conflicts.

Diseases in Africa: Malaria, Tuberculosis & New Challenges

Overpopulation, poverty, lack of hygiene, poor sanitation facilities, contamination of food and lack of safe water are the main risk factors for cholera [30] , [31].

All these elements are also among the consequences of war and civil strife. After the first mass vaccination campaigns, weekly reported cases decreased by Yellow fever virus is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus family Flaviviridae causing infection in humans, with symptoms ranging from mild nonspecific illness to severe disease with jaundice, haemorrhage and death [36].

A single-dose vaccine has available since the s. It has allowed virus transmission to be controlled and substantially reduced. However, the sylvatic cycle of the virus prevents its eradication. In this sylvatic cycle, nonhuman primates act as primary hosts, and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are responsible for transmission to people.

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Since , an increased number of cases have been also reported in Central African countries, raising the question of whether these reports were related to better surveillance or a real increase in disease [36].

A large epidemic of yellow fever was reported in Angola and the DRC from to , with suspected cases [33] , [38]. Finally, regardless of the cause of the uptick in reports surveillance improvements or epidemic , the root cause remains the same: a lack of sustained vaccination in the human population.

Diseases in africa pdf latitude

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by Orthopoxvirus, a virus very close to that causing smallpox in humans. This virus is endemic to central and western African countries. It was first identified in as a pathogen of Macaca cynomolgus then in use as laboratory animals and then in was described as a human pathogen in DRC [39]. The virus is capable of infecting humans, other primates and rodents. Most of the reported cases were related to animal-to-human transmission and were associated with the handling and eating of infected animals, but several cases of human-to-human transmission occurred [40].

Climate drivers of vector-borne diseases in Africa and their relevance to control programmes

In , Nigeria experienced the largest documented outbreak around 40 years after the last confirmed cases of monkeypox [43]. Ebola fever due to Ebola virus Filoviridae has caused severe human epidemics identified since The transmission from animal reservoirs to humans likely happens via direct contact with ill, dead or killed wild animals mainly collected as bushmeat.

The virus then spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. The world's largest ever outbreak of Ebola fever probably started in December in rural Guinea after the infection of the suspected index case, a 2-year-old child [46]. The subsequent epidemic crossed into Sierra Leone and Liberia [33]. Case numbers escalated quickly [33] , [46]. In central Africa, the outbreaks were rural epidemics that occurred in remote locations and involved relatively small case numbers, thus allowing targeted intervention in the affected villages, whereas the West African epidemic was an urban epidemic that occurred in a highly mobile population, leading to rapid spread of the virus.

10. Syphilis

Rift Valley fever is an acute fever most commonly observed in domesticated animals such as goats, sheep, cattle, buffalo and camels caused by a virus, a member of the genus Phlebovirus family Bunyaviridae , with the ability to infect and cause illness in humans. The virus was first reported in livestock by veterinary officers in Kenya's Rift Valley in the early s.

Rift Valley fever is endemic in several African countries Fig. Zika virus is another Flavivirus family Flaviridae transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The virus was first detected in April in a febrile sentinel rhesus macaque monkey in the Zika forest on the shores of Lake Victoria Uganda [48].

The first human case was diagnosed in — in Uganda. Overall, data currently support a silent transmission of Zika virus among humans, mosquitoes and animals throughout tropical Africa for more than 70 years without reports of epidemic [48].

In , the first epidemic occurred in the Pacific Yap Island, Micronesia. The second epidemic affected Polynesia in Zika virus exhibited two unique features among the arboviruses: sexual transmission and congenital central nervous system malformations [48].

Sexual transmission was first suspected in an American citizen returning from Senegal and then was confirmed after its emergence in the Americas [48].