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- The App Generation - Howard Gardner, Harvard University
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The theory of multiple intelligences differentiates human intelligence into specific 'modalities', rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. According to the theory, an intelligence 'modality' must fulfill eight criteria: . Gardner proposed eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria: . In , he suggested that existential and moral intelligences may also be worthy of inclusion. Although the distinction between intelligences has been set out in great detail, Gardner opposes the idea of labeling learners to a specific intelligence.
Gardner maintains that his theory should "empower learners", not restrict them to one modality of learning. This area has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones , and music. People with a high musical intelligence normally have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch , and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music.
They have sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, meter, tone, melody or timbre.
This area deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind's eye. Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchical model of intelligence. People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with words and languages.
They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates. This area has to do with logic , abstractions, reasoning, numbers and critical thinking. The core elements of the bodily- kinesthetic intelligence are control of one's bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully. People who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should be generally good at physical activities such as sports, dance, acting, and making things.
Gardner believes that careers that suit those with high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence include: athletes , dancers , musicians , actors , builders , police officers , and soldiers. Although these careers can be duplicated through virtual simulation, they will not produce the actual physical learning that is needed in this intelligence. In theory, individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are characterized by their sensitivity to others' moods, feelings, temperaments, motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group.
According to Gardner in How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom , "Inter- and Intra- personal intelligence is often misunderstood with being extroverted or liking other people They often enjoy discussion and debate. Gardner believes that careers that suit those with high interpersonal intelligence include sales persons , politicians , managers, teachers , lecturers , counselors and social workers.
This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities. This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what one's strengths or weaknesses are, what makes one unique, being able to predict one's own reactions or emotions.
Not part of Gardner's original seven, naturalistic intelligence was proposed by him in It seems to me that the individual who is readily able to recognize flora and fauna, to make other consequential distinctions in the natural world, and to use this ability productively in hunting, in farming, in biological science is exercising an important intelligence and one that is not adequately encompassed in the current list. This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers , and farmers ; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef.
This sort of ecological receptiveness is deeply rooted in a "sensitive, ethical , and holistic understanding" of the world and its complexities — including the role of humanity within the greater ecosphere. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an "existential" intelligence may be a useful construct, also proposed after the original 7 in his book.
On January 13, , Gardner mentioned in an interview with BigThink that he is considering adding the teaching-pedagogical intelligence "which allows us to be able to teach successfully to other people".
Adams argues that based on Gardner's definition of Multiple Intelligences, digital intelligence - a meta-intelligence composed of many other identified intelligences and stemmed from human interactions with digital computers - now exists. Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities , but that there are only very weak correlations among them.
For example, the theory postulates that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task.
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The child who takes more time to master multiplication may best learn to multiply through a different approach, may excel in a field outside mathematics, or may be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level.
Intelligence tests and psychometrics have generally found high correlations between different aspects of intelligence, rather than the low correlations which Gardner's theory predicts, supporting the prevailing theory of general intelligence rather than multiple intelligences MI. One major criticism of the theory is that it is ad hoc : that Gardner is not expanding the definition of the word "intelligence", but rather denies the existence of intelligence as traditionally understood, and instead uses the word "intelligence" where other people have traditionally used words like "ability" and " aptitude ".
This practice has been criticized by Robert J.
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Sternberg ,   Eysenck ,  and Scarr. Defenders of MI theory argue that the traditional definition of intelligence is too narrow, and thus a broader definition more accurately reflects the differing ways in which humans think and learn. Some criticisms arise from the fact that Gardner has not provided a test of his multiple intelligences.
The App Generation - Howard Gardner, Harvard University
He originally defined it as the ability to solve problems that have value in at least one culture, or as something that a student is interested in. He then added a disclaimer that he has no fixed definition, and his classification is more of an artistic judgment than fact:. Ultimately, it would certainly be desirable to have an algorithm for the selection of intelligence, such that any trained researcher could determine whether a candidate's intelligence met the appropriate criteria.
At present, however, it must be admitted that the selection or rejection of a candidate's intelligence is reminiscent more of an artistic judgment than of a scientific assessment. Generally, linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities are called intelligence, but artistic, musical, athletic, etc.
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Gardner argues this causes the former to be needlessly aggrandized. Certain critics are wary of this widening of the definition, saying that it ignores "the connotation of intelligence Gardner writes "I balk at the unwarranted assumption that certain human abilities can be arbitrarily singled out as intelligence while others cannot.
Thus, studying intelligence becomes difficult, because it diffuses into the broader concept of ability or talent. Gardner's edition of the naturalistic intelligence and conceptions of the existential and moral intelligence are seen as the fruits of this diffusion.
Defenders of the MI theory would argue that this is simply a recognition of the broad scope of inherent mental abilities and that such an exhaustive scope by nature defies a one-dimensional classification such as an IQ value. The theory and definitions have been critiqued by Perry D.
Klein as being so unclear as to be tautologous and thus unfalsifiable. Having a high musical ability means being good at music while at the same time being good at music is explained by having high musical ability.
Henri Wallon argues that "We can not distinguish intelligence from its operations". In China, the notion of "being" self and the notion of "intelligence" don't exist. These are claimed to be Graeco-Roman inventions derived from Plato.
Theory of multiple intelligences
Instead of intelligence, Chinese refers to "operating modes", which is why Yves Richez does not speak of "intelligence" but of "natural operating modes" MoON. Andreas Demetriou suggests that theories which overemphasize the autonomy of the domains are as simplistic as the theories that overemphasize the role of general intelligence and ignore the domains.
He agrees with Gardner that there are indeed domains of intelligence that are relevantly autonomous of each other. In Demetriou's theory, one of the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development , Gardner is criticized for underestimating the effects exerted on the various domains of intelligences by the various subprocesses that define overall processing efficiency, such as speed of processing , executive functions , working memory , and meta-cognitive processes underlying self-awareness and self-regulation.
All of these processes are integral components of general intelligence that regulate the functioning and development of different domains of intelligence. The domains are to a large extent expressions of the condition of the general processes, and may vary because of their constitutional differences but also differences in individual preferences and inclinations.
Their functioning both channels and influences the operation of the general processes. The premise of the multiple intelligences hypothesis, that human intelligence is a collection of specialist abilities, have been criticized for not being able to explain human adaptation to most if not all environments in the world.
In this context, humans are contrasted to social insects that indeed have a distributed "intelligence" of specialists, and such insects may spread to climates resembling that of their origin but the same species never adapt to a wide range of climates from tropical to temperate by building different types of nests and learning what is edible and what is poisonous. While some such as the leafcutter ant grow fungi on leaves, they do not cultivate different species in different environments with different farming techniques as human agriculture does.
It is therefore argued that human adaptability stems from a general ability to falsify hypotheses and make more generally accurate predictions and adapt behavior thereafter, and not a set of specialized abilities which would only work under specific environmental conditions.
Gardner argues that IQ tests only measure linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities.
He argues the importance of assessing in an "intelligence-fair" manner. While traditional paper-and-pen examinations favor linguistic and logical skills, there is a need for intelligence-fair measures that value the distinct modalities of thinking and learning that uniquely define each intelligence.
Psychologist Alan S. Kaufman points out that IQ tests have measured spatial abilities for 70 years. While IQ tests do give an overall IQ score, they now also give scores for many more narrow abilities.
According to a study many of Gardner's "intelligences" correlate with the g factor , supporting the idea of a single dominant type of intelligence. According to the study, each of the domains proposed by Gardner involved a blend of g , of cognitive abilities other than g , and, in some cases, of non-cognitive abilities or of personality characteristics. The Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation has tested hundreds of thousands of people  to determine their "aptitudes" "intelligences" , such as manual dexterity, musical ability, spatial visualization, and memory for numbers.
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Linda Gottfredson has argued that thousands of studies support the importance of intelligence quotient IQ in predicting school and job performance, and numerous other life outcomes. In contrast, empirical support for non- g intelligences is either lacking or very poor. She argued that despite this the ideas of multiple non- g intelligences are very attractive to many due to the suggestion that everyone can be smart in some way.
To date, there have been no published studies that offer evidence of the validity of the multiple intelligences. In Sternberg reported finding no empirical studies.
In Allix reported finding no empirical validating studies, and at that time Gardner and Connell conceded that there was "little hard evidence for MI theory" , p. In Sternberg and Grigerenko stated that there were no validating studies for multiple intelligences, and in Gardner asserted that he would be "delighted were such evidence to accrue",  and admitted that "MI theory has few enthusiasts among psychometricians or others of a traditional psychological background" because they require "psychometric or experimental evidence that allows one to prove the existence of the several intelligences.
The same review presents evidence to demonstrate that cognitive neuroscience research does not support the theory of multiple intelligences:. Taken together the evidence for the intercorrelations of subskills of IQ measures, the evidence for a shared set of genes associated with mathematics, reading, and g, and the evidence for shared and overlapping "what is it?
Equally important, the evidence for the "what is it?
Because Gardner claimed that the intelligences are innate potentialities related to a general content area, MI theory lacks a rationale for the phylogenetic emergence of the intelligences. The theory of multiple intelligences is sometimes cited as an example of pseudoscience because it lacks empirical evidence or falsifiability ,  though Gardner has argued otherwise. Gardner defines intelligence as "bio-psychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture.
Gardner believes that the purpose of schooling "should be to develop intelligence and to help people reach vocational and avocational goals that are appropriate to their particular spectrum of intelligence. People who are helped to do so, [he] believe[s], feel more engaged and competent and therefore more inclined to serve the society in a constructive way.
Gardner contends that IQ tests focus mostly on logical and linguistic intelligence. Upon doing well on these tests, the chances of attending a prestigious college or university increase, which in turn creates contributing members of society. Gardner's theory argues that students will be better served by a broader vision of education, wherein teachers use different methodologies, exercises and activities to reach all students, not just those who excel at linguistic and logical intelligence.
It challenges educators to find "ways that will work for this student learning this topic".
The app generation by howard gardner and katie davis pdf creator
James Traub 's article in The New Republic notes that Gardner's system has not been accepted by most academics in intelligence or teaching. Within the area of education, the applications of the theory are currently being examined in many projects.
Our hunches will have to be revised many times in light of actual classroom experience.