Scott joplin ragtime dance pdf writer
Ragtime — also spelled rag-time or rag time  — is a musical style that enjoyed its peak popularity between and The style has its origins in African-American communities in cities such as St. Ragtime was also a modification of the march style popularized by John Philip Sousa , with additional polyrhythms coming from African music.
Ragtime quickly established itself as a distinctly American form of popular music. Ragtime became the first African-American music to have an impact on mainstream popular culture. Piano "professors" such as Jelly Roll Morton played ragtime in the "sporting houses" bordellos of New Orleans; Polite society embraced Ragtime as disseminated by brass bands and "society" dance bands.
Bands led by W.
Handy and James R. Europe were among the first to crash the color bar in American music.
The new rhythms of Ragtime changed the world of dance bands and led to new dance steps, popularized by the show-dancers Vernon and Irene Castle during the s. The growth of dance orchestras in popular entertainment was an outgrowth of Ragtime and continued into the s.
Ragtime also made its way to Europe. Shipboard orchestras on transatlantic lines included Ragtime music in their repertoire. James R. Europe's th Regiment band generated great enthusiasm during its tour of France. Ragtime was an influence on early jazz ; the influence of Jelly Roll Morton continued in the Harlem stride piano style of players such as James P. Johnson and Fats Waller. Dance orchestras started evolving away from Ragtime towards the big band sounds that predominated in the s and s when they adopted smoother rhythmic styles.
There have been numerous revivals since newer styles supplanted ragtime in the s. First in the early s, many jazz bands began to include ragtime in their repertoire and put out ragtime recordings on 78 rpm records.
The Ragtime Dance (Joplin, Scott)
A more significant revival occurred in the s as a wider variety of ragtime genres of the past were made available on records, and new rags were composed, published, and recorded.
In Joshua Rifkin released a compilation of Joplin's work which was nominated for a Grammy Award. The movie The Sting brought ragtime to a wide audience with its soundtrack of Joplin tunes.
The film's rendering of "The Entertainer", adapted and orchestrated by Marvin Hamlisch , was a Top 5 hit in Ragtime — with Joplin's work at the forefront — has been cited as an American equivalent of the minuets of Mozart , the mazurkas of Chopin , or the waltzes of Brahms. Ragtime originated in African American music in the late 19th century and descended from the jigs and march music played by African American bands, referred to as "jig piano" or "piano thumping".
By the start of the 20th century, it became widely popular throughout North America and was listened and danced to, performed, and written by people of many different subcultures.
A distinctly American musical style, ragtime may be considered a synthesis of African syncopation and European classical music, especially the marches made popular by John Philip Sousa. Some early piano rags are entitled marches, and "jig" and "rag" were used interchangeably in the mids. In , black entertainer Ernest Hogan composed two of the earliest sheet music rags, one of which " All Coons Look Alike to Me " eventually sold a million copies.
The other composition was called " La Pas Ma La ", and it was also a hit. As black musician Tom Fletcher said, Hogan was the "first to put on paper the kind of rhythm that was being played by non-reading musicians.
In Hogan's later years, he admitted shame and a sense of "race betrayal" from the song, while also expressing pride in helping bring ragtime to a larger audience. The emergence of mature ragtime is usually dated to , the year in which several important early rags were published.
In , Scott Joplin's " Maple Leaf Rag " was published and became a great hit and demonstrated more depth and sophistication than earlier ragtime. Ragtime was one of the main influences on the early development of jazz along with the blues. Some artists, such as Jelly Roll Morton , were present and performed both ragtime and jazz styles during the period the two styles overlapped.
He also incorporated the Spanish Tinge in his performances, which gave a habanera or tango rhythm to his music. The heyday of ragtime occurred before sound recording was widely available.
Like classical music, and unlike jazz, classical ragtime had and has primarily a written tradition, being distributed in sheet music rather than through recordings or by imitation of live performances. Ragtime music was also distributed via piano rolls for player pianos.
A folk ragtime tradition also existed before and during the period of classical ragtime a designation largely created by Scott Joplin's publisher John Stillwell Stark , manifesting itself mostly through string bands, banjo and mandolin clubs which experienced a burst of popularity during the early 20th century and the like.
A form known as novelty piano or novelty ragtime emerged as the traditional rag was fading in popularity.
Where traditional ragtime depended on amateur pianists and sheet music sales, the novelty rag took advantage of new advances in piano-roll technology and the phonograph record to permit a more complex, pyrotechnic, performance-oriented style of rag to be heard.
Chief among the novelty rag composers is Zez Confrey , whose " Kitten on the Keys " popularized the style in Ragtime also served as the roots for stride piano , a more improvisational piano style popular in the s and s. Elements of ragtime found their way into much of the American popular music of the early 20th century.
It also played a central role in the development of the musical style later referred to as Piedmont blues ; indeed, much of the music played by such artists of the style as Reverend Gary Davis , Blind Boy Fuller , Elizabeth Cotten , and Etta Baker could be referred to as "ragtime guitar. Although most ragtime was composed for piano, transcriptions for other instruments and ensembles are common, notably including Gunther Schuller 's arrangements of Joplin's rags.
Ragtime guitar continued to be popular into the s, usually in the form of songs accompanied by skilled guitar work. Occasionally ragtime was scored for ensembles particularly dance bands and brass bands similar to those of James Reese Europe or as songs like those written by Irving Berlin. Joplin had long-standing ambitions of synthesizing the worlds of ragtime and opera , to which end the opera Treemonisha was written.
However, its first performance, poorly staged with Joplin accompanying on the piano, was "disastrous" and was never performed again in Joplin's lifetime.
The rag was a modification of the march made popular by John Philip Sousa , with additional polyrhythms coming from African music. According to some sources the name "ragtime" may come from the "ragged or syncopated rhythm" of the right hand. Ragtime is not a meter in the same way that marches are in duple meter and waltzes are in triple meter; it is rather a musical style that uses an effect that can be applied to any meter.
The defining characteristic of ragtime music is a specific type of syncopation in which melodic accents occur between metrical beats. This results in a melody that seems to be avoiding some metrical beats of the accompaniment by emphasizing notes that either anticipate or follow the beat "a rhythmic base of metric affirmation, and a melody of metric denial" . The ultimate and intended effect on the listener is actually to accentuate the beat, thereby inducing the listener to move to the music.
The name swing later came to be applied to an early style of jazz that developed from ragtime. Converting a non-ragtime piece of music into ragtime by changing the time values of melody notes is known as "ragging" the piece. Original ragtime pieces usually contain several distinct themes, four being the most common number.
These themes were typically 16 bars, each theme divided into periods of four four-bar phrases and arranged in patterns of repeats and reprises. Sometimes rags would include introductions of four bars or bridges, between themes, of anywhere between four and 24 bars. In a note on the sheet music for the song "Leola" Joplin wrote, "Notice! Don't play this piece fast.
It is never right to play 'ragtime' fast. Doctorow used the quotation as the epigraph to his novel Ragtime. Ragtime pieces came in a number of different styles during the years of its popularity and appeared under a number of different descriptive names. It is related to several earlier styles of music, has close ties with later styles of music, and was associated with a few musical fads of the period such as the foxtrot.
Many of the terms associated with ragtime have inexact definitions and are defined differently by different experts; the definitions are muddled further by the fact that publishers often labelled pieces for the fad of the moment rather than the true style of the composition. There is even disagreement about the term "ragtime" itself; experts such as David Jasen and Trebor Tichenor choose to exclude ragtime songs from the definition but include novelty piano and stride piano a modern perspective , while Edward A.
Berlin includes ragtime songs and excludes the later styles which is closer to how ragtime was viewed originally. The terms below should not be considered exact, but merely an attempt to pin down the general meaning of the concept. The most famous ragtime composer [note 1] was Scott Joplin.
Joseph Lamb , James Scott , and Joplin are considered the three most sophisticated ragtime composers. Handy , Ben Harney , Charles L. Johnson , James P. Stone , Wilbur Sweatman , and Tom Turpin. European Classical composers were influenced by the form. The first contact with ragtime was probably at the Paris Exposition in , one of the stages of the European tour of John Philip Sousa.
The Entertainer (rag)
Erik Satie , Arthur Honegger , Darius Milhaud , and the other members of The Group of Six in Paris never made any secret of their sympathy for ragtime, which is sometimes evident in their works. Consider, in particular, the ballet of Satie, Parade Ragtime du Paquebot , and La Mort de Monsieur Mouche , an overture for piano for a drama in three acts, composed in the early s in memory of his friend J. Contamine de Latour. In the American cakewalk was very popular in Paris and Satie two years later wrote two rags, La Diva de l'empire and Piccadilly.
Despite the two Anglo-Saxon settings, the tracks appear American-inspired. La Diva de l'empire , a march for piano soloist, was written for Paulette Darty and initially bore the title Stand-Walk Marche ; it was later subtitled Intermezzo Americain when Rouarts-Lerolle reprinted it in Piccadilly , another march, was initially titled The Transatlantique ; it presented a stereotypical wealthy American heir sailing on an ocean liner on the New York—Europe route, going to trade his fortune for an aristocratic title in Europe.
Even the Swiss composer Honegger wrote works in which the influence of African American music is pretty obvious. Igor Stravinsky wrote a solo piano work called Piano-Rag-Music in and also included a rag in his theater piece L'Histoire du soldat In the early s, many jazz bands began to include ragtime in their repertoire, and as early as 78 rpm records of Joplin's compositions were produced. Bowman 's " Twelfth Street Rag. A more significant revival occurred in the s.
A wider variety of ragtime styles of the past were made available on records, and new rags were composed, published, and recorded. Much of the ragtime recorded in this period is presented in a light-hearted novelty style, looked to with nostalgia as the product of a supposedly more innocent time.
Scott Joplin - The Ragtime Dance
A number of popular recordings featured " prepared pianos ", playing rags on pianos with tacks on the hammers and the instrument deliberately somewhat out of tune, supposedly to simulate the sound of a piano in an old honky tonk. Four events brought forward a different kind of ragtime revival in the s. This recording reintroduced Joplin's music to the public in the manner the composer had intended, not as a nostalgic stereotype but as serious, respectable music.
Finally, with the release of the motion picture The Sting in , which had a Marvin Hamlisch soundtrack of Joplin tunes edited by Gunther Schuller , ragtime was brought to a wide audience.