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Participatory breeding: tool for conservation of neglected and underutilized crops. Pazdiora1, 3. Although a significant number of plant species to be recognized as food, only a small fraction meets the protein demand of the world population.

Breeding crops, with a very narrow genetic base, most likely will not counteract the adverse effects of climate change. On the contrary, the crops named as underutilized, neglected, orphaned, obsolete or minor, may contain the answers in their genomes to ensure safety and nutrition and food sovereignty of populations. Duly adapted to extreme growing conditions, these local varieties, such as indigenous and landraces of Colombian maize, are part of the cultural heritage of many ethnic groups or original peoples, that select, use and conserve these varieties.

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Besides these, another concept refers to the promising resources, also little used, although for different reasons. Therefore, Participatory Plant Breeding is a tool to promote traditional local varieties or underutilized crops, to meet the needs of communities. In the PPB, members of the production chain farmers, breeders, technicians and others work together in the process of development of varieties, in a decentralized and participatory process.

A PB program with Colombian maize germplasm resulted in the promotion of some local varieties.

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Alongside, new maize landraces to Colombia were described. Keywords: Orphaned crops, underutilized species, original peoples, race, ancestral knowledge, local variety.

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Sin embargo, aunque sean muy diversas, esas unidades se encuentran en la franja de extrema pobreza y con un bajo nivel de productividad. En la EPV, el objetivo es valorizar el germoplasma disponible.

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Frankel y Brown , Thurston et al. A su vez, Thurston et al. Espinosa et al. Pastor et al. Entre estas causas:. Al contrario del fitomejoramiento convencional, el FMP es descentralizado y participativo Cecarelli et al. Al ser un proceso descentralizado y participativo, contribuye al empoderamiento y la toma de decisiones de los principales gestores y actores: las poblaciones locales.

Las tres primeras etapas conforman el FMP. Las cuatro primeras, la EPV:. En esta zona son abundantes los cultivos de cebolla larga, cilantro, repollo, fresa, mora, entre otros. Figura 2. Roberts et al.

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Por lo tanto, en estos agroecosistemas tradicionales predominan los sistemas informales de semillas, con trueques e intercambios. El segundo grupo, con nueve razas, se reconoce como Probablemente Introducidas. Almekinders C. Anderson, E. Races of Zea mays: I. Their recognition and classification. The impact of participatory plant breeding.

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In: Plant Breeding and Farmer Participation. Edited by S.

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Ceccarelli, E. P Guimaraes, E. Bohrer Monteiro, M.

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Broccoli , A. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Caetano C. Cuadernos De Recursos Fitogeneticos.

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Caetano, C. Cecarelli , S.

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Quito, Ecuador. Ceccarelli, S.

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Al Hasan, A. A methodological study of participatory barley breeding. Response to selection.

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Plant breeding and farmer participation. Crossing perspectives: farmers and scientists in participatory plant breeding. Cali, Colombia. De la Calle, R. Espinosa, P. Cultivos marginados en Ecuador. Eyzaguirre, P. Agricultores mejoradores de su propia semilla. Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala. State of Food and Agriculture. Innovation in family farming. Economic and Social Development Department.

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Rome, Italy. Hammer, k. Cultivos marginados : otra perspectiva de Roma, Italia: FAO. Produccion y proteccion vegetal, p. Machado, A. Manrique, K. Nociones de manejo postcosecha.

Diario de la marina ( February 25, 1955 )

Documentos Centro Internacional de la Papa. Morris, M. Participatory plant breeding research: Opportunities and challenges for the international crop improvement system. Naciones Unidas. Padulosi, S. Pardo de Santayana, M. Pastor, S. Revelo Portilla, E. Roberts, L.

Silva Ramos, M. El rol de los cultivos marginales en la seguridad alimentaria. Smith, M. Participatory plant breeding with maize in Mexico and Honduras. Soares, A.

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Thies, E. Promising and underutilized species crops and breed. Eschborn, Germany: GTZ. Toledo Machado, A. Ginebra, Suiza. Vernooy, R. Semillas generosas. Mejoramiento participativo de plantas. New approaches to supporting the agricultural biodiversity important for sustainable rural livelihoods.

Walker, T.

Diario de la marina ( April 7, 1959 )

Washington, DC. Witcombe, J.

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Methodologies for generating variability. Part 2: Selection of parents and crossing strategies. Guimaraes, y E. World Conservation Monitoring Centre.