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The Soviet Union and Pakistan first established the diplomatic and bilateral relations on 1 May For the most of the Cold War , the Soviet Union's relations with Pakistan have seen ups and downs during the different periods in the history of Pakistan.
In the mid s, relations were quickly improved and warmed. However, in the s, relations began to deteriorate again, and during the Soviet-Afghan War , Pakistan played a key role going against the Soviet Union by supplying FIM Stinger missiles to the Mujahideen backed by the aid of the United States.
The Stinger Missiles played a key role by accurately shooting down Soviet Helicopters, which nevertheless killed thousands of Soviet Air Force troops. Pakistan is credited for playing a key role for allying and supporting The West during this time period of the Cold War.
In response to ongoing Soviet support to communist Afghanistan regarding the Durand Line issue during the late s and s, Pakistan began to support Mujahideen rebels attempting to overthrow the Soviet-backed communist regime and was later aided by the United States , United Kingdom , China and Saudi Arabia. This led to the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.
Due to the condemnation of Soviet actions in Afghanistan, Pakistan was one of the 80 total countries that boycotted the Summer Olympics scheduled in Moscow.
Pak Russia Relations 2019 -- Russia Invest 8 Billion Dollars In Pakistan
In recent years ties between Russia and Pakistan have warmed as a countermeasure to warming ties between India and the United States, the two countries carried out their first-ever joint military drills in despite Indian requests to postpone due to the Uri attack.
Soviet relations with Pakistan then part of the British Raj dated back to after the Bolshevik Revolution. From —27, people who entered from the Soviet Union into the territory now Pakistan held by the British Empire , attempted to start a communist revolution against the British Indian Empire.
The series of coups known as Peshawar Conspiracy Cases ; the British Empire was terrified after the intelligence on attempted communist revolution in India were revealed to authorities. From —50 and —69, the trade, educational, and cultural exchanges between two countries increased.
But the Soviet efforts were undermined by the Soviet Union by itself when Soviet criticism of Pakistan's position in the war with India weakened bilateral relations, and many people of Pakistan believed that the August Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Peace and Cooperation encouraged India invasion of East Pakistan. Subsequent Soviet arms sales to India, amounting to billions of dollars on concessional terms, reinforced this argument. Pakistan gained independence during the penultimate times of cold war , and the Russian military involvement in Afghanistan had a long history, going back to Tsarist times in the so-called " Great Game " between Russia and Great Britain.
According to the studies conducted by the Institute of Strategic Studies ISS , the Soviet Union did not welcomed the partition of Bengal and Punjab, fluctuating from cool to antagonistic and hostile relations. If the Hindus give us and Pakistan, then the Hindus are her best friends. If the British give it to her then the Brits are our best friends. If neither will give it to us the freedom Then the Russia is our best friend However, the policy was changed after Soviet Union witnessed two events particularly forcing them to respond to Pakistan when India decided to remain within the Commonwealth Nations , it was a clear sign that India was leaning towards the Western countries under the U.
To a reaction, Soviet Union extended an invitation to Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, in to visit Moscow, becoming the first prime minister from the Commonwealth of Nations to visit the communist country, but Soviet Union herself did not materialized the dates or the plans. Pakistan had noticed the subservience which was forced upon the allies of the Soviet Union. Furthermore, there was the question whether Russia could supply the aid, both material and technical, which Pakistan so urgently needed During —58, the relations were strained and hostility against each other as time passes.
On March—April , a delegation of the Soviet cultural troupe toured Pakistan and a festival of the Soviet films was held in Karachi. In , Soviet Union agreed to give Pakistan an [ clarification needed ] handful in aid in agriculture, economic, science, control of pest, flood control, desalination, soil erosion and technical assistance to Pakistan.
India must blame itself for Russia-Pakistan alliance
The U-2 incident worsened relations between the Soviet Union and Pakistan. The Soviet Union paid back its revenge on Indo-Pakistani war of , emerged as the biggest supplier of military hardware to India.
The Soviet Union had far more better relations with East-Pakistan Now Bangladesh , and had strong ties with Communist Party after successfully staging the protest see Bengali Language Movement to give national recognition to the language as compare to Urdu in constitution.
Many demonstrations, led by communist party were held and the newly elected members of East-Pakistan Parliament signed a statement, which denounced Pakistan's government for signing a military pact with United States. In West-Pakistan , the Soviet relations had improved after the formation of leading democratic socialist Pakistan Peoples Party. In , the West-Pakistan Parliament passed the resolution which called for establishing ties with Soviet Union.
On 6 December and 13 December , the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of cruisers and destroyers and a nuclear submarine armed with nuclear missiles from Vladivostok ;  they trailed U.
The democratic socialist alliance led by then-Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto made an effort to improve relations with the Soviet Union, and for the first time in Pakistani history , the Soviet Union's ties with Pakistan began to warm and relations were quickly improved.
In , Bhutto paid a tiring and lengthy state visit to Soviet Union, becoming the first prime minister since the independence of Pakistan in Bhutto and his delegation was met with great jubilation, a warm-heated celebration took place after Bhutto was received by Alexei Kosygin in Moscow.
While there, Bhutto succeeded to convince the Soviet Union to establish the integrated steel mills , which prompted the Soviet Union to provide funds for the billion dollar project. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Facing inexperience for the erection work of the integrated steel mill, Bhutto requested Soviet Union to send its experts.
During the till , Soviet Union and Pakistan enjoyed a strong relationship with each other which also benefited the Soviet Union. When Bhutto was hanged, Brezhnev condemned the act out of "purely humane motives".
Shortly after the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, military ruler General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq called for a meeting of senior military members and technocrats of his military government. Kabul must burn! In , the relationship took a dangerous turn, when Soviet press, notable "Pravda" and other Soviet commentators, began to issue threatening statements towards Pakistan. The U. Andropov expressed indignation over Pakistan's covert support of the Afghan resistance against the Soviet Union and its satellite state, Communist Afghanistan.
Zia took his hand and assured him, "General Secretary, believe me, Pakistan wants nothing but very good relations with the Soviet Union".
Why Russia Is Getting Closer To Pakistan And Abandoning India?
Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto authorized further aggressive military operations in Afghanistan to topple the fragile communist regime and to end the Soviet influence. But the operation failed miserably and the Afghan army supported by Soviet scuds won the battle resulting in ISI chief being sacked by the Prime Minister .
At the end of years of Cold War, Soviet Union announced to establish a 1 GW commercial nuclear power plant in Pakistan, but after witnessing its aging technology Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto , later followed by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif , did not authorize the purchase and showed little interest in aging Soviet technology.
In , Prime minister Nawaz Sharif released the details and company of Soviet soldiers to the Russian government when Alexander Rutskoy visited the country, after meeting in a committee led by Deputy Foreign Minister of Pakistan, Shahryar Khan. After the Soviet Union troop withdrawal withdrawing the combatant troops from Communist Afghanistan , relations began to normalize with Pakistan. In the wake of fall of communism , Russian-Pakistan relations were warmed rapidly.
In , Soviet ambassador to Pakistan offered Pakistan to install a commercial nuclear power plant in the country, however after U. In —95, Benazir Bhutto attempted to warm relations with Russia but suffered a major setback when Benazir Bhutto's government recognized Taliban-controlled government in Afghanistan as legitimate entity. In , Russia willingly agreed to launch Pakistan's second satellite, Badr-B , from its Baikonur Cosmodrome for the lowest possible charges.
In , Prime minister Nawaz Sharif attempted to warm relations with Russia after sending farewell messages to Russian Federation. In April , Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif paid an important state visit to Kremlin , this was the first trip to Moscow paid by a Pakistani Prime minister in 25 years, but no breakthrough was made. Meanwhile, Russia played a major role in ending the war but remained hostile towards Pakistan.
On 19 April , the Russian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Alexander Losyukov paid a state visit to Pakistan, and both countries agreed to co-operate in economic development and to work towards peace and prosperity in the region. The decision of Pakistan to join the international struggle against terrorism has led to Russia-Pakistan relations being greatly improved. Russia also played an integral role to ease off the nuclear Indo-Pakistan tensions.
Pak russia relations pdf creator
Pakistan also decided to grant Russia access to the Gwadar Port, a warm water sea port as has done to both Iran and Turkmenistan. Due to rapidly shifting global geopolitical interests spurred by the end of the Cold War and the ongoing U. Russia vowed its support for Pakistan in its struggle against the Taliban militants.
In , the relations between Pakistan and the Russian Federation were reactivated after the 3-day official visit of Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov. He was the first Russian prime minister to visit Pakistan in the post Soviet -era in 38 years.
The major focus of the visit was to improve bilateral relations with particular emphasis on ways and means to enhance economic cooperation between the two countries. In , Prime Minister Vladimir Putin of Russia stated that Russia was against developing strategic and military ties with Pakistan because of Russian desire to place emphasis on strategic ties with India.
In , Russia changed its policy and Putin publicly endorsed Pakistans bid to join the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and said that Pakistan was a very important partner in South Asia and the Muslim world for Russia.
Putin offered Russia's assistance in expansion of Pakistan Steel Mills and provision of technical support for the Guddu and Muzaffargarh power plants and Russia was interested in developing the Thar Coal Project  In , Russia strongly condemned the NATO strike in Pakistan and the Russian foreign minister stated it is unacceptable to violate the sovereignty of a state, even when planning and carrying out counter-insurgent operations.
Meanwhile, Pakistan army chief general Ashfaq Parvez Kayani visited Moscow from October 4 for three-day official visit.
The two generals discussed matters of mutual interest with emphasis on improving defence cooperation, army-to-army relations the security situation in the region, especially in Afghanistan post In a press conference, the ambassador of Russia has agreed to sell helicopters to Pakistan to assist the country with terrorism and security related issues.
Russia was still holding talks with Pakistan on the supply of the combat helicopters, and had lifted its embargo on the arms supply to Pakistan. We are holding talks on supplying the helicopters," head of state-owned Rostec, Sergei Chemezov said, adding that the negotiations were about Russian Mi Hind attack helicopters. Russia has long been the largest supplier of arms to India, which is the world's top arms buyer.
But Moscow's move to supply Islamabad came as New Delhi is seeking to modernise its armed forces' ageing hardware and has recently chosen to buy arms from Israel, France, Britain and the United States. The dialogue, the Foreign Office says, lays an institutional framework for building closer relations between the two countries through discussions for cooperation in political, economic, defence and other sectors.
Pak-Russia Relations News
The two sides exchanged views on regional and international developments. Broadly, Pakistan and Russia agreed for more high-level contacts, closely coordinating positions on regional and international issues, and expanding trade and investment relations and cooperation in the field of energy and power generation. This was seen as an improvement in ties as Russia's longtime ally India moved towards US. Pakistan, Russia signs a landmark defence deal in In , Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan sent a fare well message to Moscow in an attempt to set up the economic coordination between the two countries.
In , the bilateral trade between Russia and Pakistan reached to 92 million US dollar, which increased to In , Russia and Pakistan have covertly developed geopolitical and strategic relations behind the scenes of world politics for the last two years, as Stephen Blank of Strategic Studies Institute maintained. Increasing military cooperation between Islamabad and Moscow would not negatively impact Russia's ties with India, Ryabkov said in , adding that Pak-Russia ties were improving in other sectors as well—including energy.
The first annual joint exercise between the Russian military and the Pakistan Army took place under the name "Friendship ". Russia maintains an embassy in the capital of Pakistan, Islamabad, and Pakistan has an embassy in Moscow in Russia.
The world's first bilingual Urdu-Russian dictionary was compiled and launched by Pakistan-based Russian scholar Dr. Tashmirza Khalmirzaev in at a ceremony in Islamabad. Khalmirzaev said the dictionary aimed to "help speakers of both languages come closer.
Russia made a choice in favor of Pakistan
On 13 January , a poll in seven countries managed by the Washington Post , to see whether the people of those seven countries prefer democratic government or one with a "strong" leader.
The Pakistani literature , both in English and Urdu , is widely popular in Russia. Many of Faiz Ahmad Faiz 's drama work, poetry, and literature work has been translated in Russian language.
The dramatist and playwright, Anwar Maqsood 's work has been well received in Russia and majority of his dramas have been translated and opted in Russian dramas and writes.