No authentic American language available for literary purposes.
History of american novel pdf bahasa
Lack of cultural support for American creative efforts. American culture tended to be parochial and generally distrustful of any written expression that was not didactic.
For example, clergy such as Jonathan Edwards taught that reading novels was an indulgence leading to moral decline. With an unstable society, there can be no stable "American" genre of the novel. Cathy Davidson and others have argued that some novels tried to assume an ideological position Revolution and the Word , --a critique of the existing social order--and that the more popular the genre became, the more those vested with cultural authority worried over their loss of dominance.
This was especially true because novels, unlike sermons, required no intermediaries for interpretation. Davidson: "The early American novel, as a genre, tended to proclaim a socially egalitarian message.
It spoke for. Types: 1. Sentimental 2. Picaresque 3.
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Gothic 4. Brown's novel was based on the story of Perez Morton's seduction of his wife's sister, Fanny Apthorp, an act at once both incestuous and adulterous according to eighteenth-century law. The novel insists on the importance of education for women to avoid such a fate. Susanna Rowson, Charlotte Temple A third-person narrative, not an epistolary novel, this book warns against listening to the "voice of love" and counsels resistance.
Hannah Foster, The Coquette Once again based on an actual incident, this epistolary novel features a woman seduced and abandoned who gives birth to an illegitimate stillborn child at an inn.
Foster tells the story from her point of view. The sentimental novel failed because it could not sustain a coherent critique of American society.
Contemporary Works England Samuel Richardson, Pamela : the first English book that practically all readers are willing to call a fully realized novel.
This allows feelings and reactions to be presented without authorial intrusion, gives a sense of immediacy because the letters are written in the thick of the action, and allows the writer to present multiple points of view.
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Sentimental novel or novel of sensibility : This form reflects the sentimentalism of the eighteenth century as reflected in sentimental comedy and domestic tragedy. Pamela was the beginning of the vogue, although Fielding's more realistic Tom Jones was written in protest. Sensibility : A term for reliance on feelings as guides to truth and not on reason and law.
This term is connected with primitivism, sentimentalism, the nature movement, and other aspects of romanticism. The high value that the 18 th century put on sensibility was a reaction against the stoicism of the seventeenth century and the theories advanced by Hobbes and others that human beings were motivated primarily by self-interest.
History of the Novel
Overindulgence in emotion especially for the pleasure that this feeling provides. Optimistic overemphasis on the goodness of humanity sensibility , representing in part a reaction against Calvinism, which regarded human nature as depraved.
Features panoramic scenes. James Fenimore Cooper 2. A great obstacle to good education is the inordinate passion prevalent for novels, and the time lost in that reading which should be instructively employed.
The American Novel
When this poison infects the mind, it destroys its tone and revolts it against wholesome reading. Reason and fact, plain and unadorned, are rejected.
Nothing can engage attention unless dressed in all the figments of fancy, and nothing so bedecked comes amiss. The result is a bloated imagination, sickly judgment, and disgust towards all the real businesses of life.
This mass of trash, however, is not without some distinction; some few modeling their narratives, although fictitious, on the incidents of real life, have been able to make them interesting and useful vehicles of a sound morality.
The Cambridge History of the American Novel Pdf
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