Gao xiao xi you ji pdf
Arthur Waley 's popular abridged translation, Monkey , is well known in English-speaking countries. It retains the broad outline of Xuanzang's own account, Great Tang Records on the Western Regions , but the Ming dynasty novel adds elements from folk tales and the author's invention, that is, that Gautama Buddha gave this task to the monk referred to as Tang Sanzang in the novel and provided him with three protectors who agree to help him as an atonement for their sins.
Journey to the West - Chapter 1
Journey to the West has strong roots in Chinese folk religion , Chinese mythology , Confucianist , Taoist and Buddhist philosophy, and the pantheon of Taoist immortals and Buddhist bodhisattvas are still reflective of some Chinese religious attitudes today.
Enduringly popular, the tale is at once a comic adventure story, a humorous satire of Chinese bureaucracy, a spring of spiritual insight, and an extended allegory in which the group of pilgrims journeys towards enlightenment by the power and virtue of cooperation. Journey to the West was thought to have been written and published anonymously by Wu Cheng'en in the 16th century.
Brown University Chinese literature scholar David Lattimore states: "The Ambassador's confidence was quite unjustified.
What the gazetteer says is that Wu wrote something called The Journey to the West. It mentions nothing about a novel. The work in question could have been any version of our story, or something else entirely. Translator W. Jenner points out that although Wu had knowledge of Chinese bureaucracy and politics, the novel itself does not include any political details that "a fairly well-read commoner could not have known".
Yu states that the identity of the author, as with so many other major works of Chinese fiction, "remains unclear" but that Wu remains "the most likely" author. Regardless of the origins and authorship, Journey to the West has become the authoritative version of these folk stories,  and Wu's name has become inextricably linked with the book. The novel Journey to the West was based on historical events.
Motivated by the poor quality of Chinese translations of Buddhist scripture at the time, Xuanzang left Chang'an in , in defiance of Emperor Taizong of Tang 's ban on travel.
He then crossed what are today Kyrgyzstan , Uzbekistan , and Afghanistan , into Gandhara , reaching India in Xuanzang traveled throughout the Indian subcontinent for the next thirteen years, visiting important Buddhist pilgrimage sites, studying at the ancient university at Nalanda , and debating the rivals of Buddhism.
Xuanzang left India in and arrived back in Chang'an in Although he had defied the imperial travel ban when he left, Xuanzang received a warm welcome from Emperor Taizong upon his return. The emperor provided money and support for Xuanzang's projects. With the support of the emperor, he established an institute at Yuhua Gong Palace of the Lustre of Jade monastery dedicated to translating the scriptures he had brought back.
His translation and commentary work established him as the founder of the Dharma character school of Buddhism. Xuanzang died on 7 March The Xingjiao Monastery was established in to house his ashes. Popular and story-teller versions of Xuanzang's journey dating as far back as the Southern Song dynasty include a monkey character as a protagonist. The novel has chapters that can be divided into four unequal parts.
The first part, which includes chapters 1—7, is a self-contained introduction to the main story. His powers grow to match the forces of all of the Eastern Taoist deities, and the prologue culminates in Sun's rebellion against Heaven, during a time when he garnered a post in the celestial bureaucracy.
Hubris proves his downfall when the Buddha manages to trap him under a mountain, sealing it with a talisman for five hundred years.
The second part chapters 8—12 introduces the nominal main character, Tang Sanzang , through his early biography and the background to his great journey.
Dismayed that " the land of the South i. The third and longest section of the work is chapters 13—99, an episodic adventure story in which Tang Sanzang sets out to bring back Buddhist scriptures from Leiyin Temple on Vulture Peak in India, but encounters various evils along the way. The section is set in the sparsely populated lands along the Silk Road between China and India. The geography described in the book is, however, almost entirely fantasy; once Tang Sanzang departs Chang'an , the Tang capital, and crosses the frontier somewhere in Gansu province , he finds himself in a wilderness of deep gorges and tall mountains, inhabited by demons and animal spirits, who regard him as a potential meal since his flesh was believed to give immortality to whoever ate it , with the occasional hidden monastery or royal city-state amidst the harsh setting.
Episodes consist of 1—4 chapters and usually involve Tang Sanzang being captured and having his life threatened while his disciples try to find an ingenious and often violent way of liberating him.
Although some of Tang Sanzang's predicaments are political and involve ordinary human beings, they more frequently consist of run-ins with various demons, many of whom turn out to be earthly manifestations of heavenly beings whose sins will be negated by eating the flesh of Tang Sanzang or animal-spirits with enough Taoist spiritual merit to assume semi-human forms.
Chapters 13—22 do not follow this structure precisely, as they introduce Tang Sanzang's disciples, who, inspired or goaded by Guanyin , meet and agree to serve him along the way in order to atone for their sins in their past lives.
Xiao xue yu wen pei you ji xun ju yi fan san : Liu nian ji
Chapter 22, where Sha Wujing is introduced, also provides a geographical boundary, as the river that the travelers cross brings them into a new " continent ". Chapters 23—86 take place in the wilderness, and consist of 24 episodes of varying length, each characterised by a different magical monster or evil magician.
There are impassably wide rivers, flaming mountains , a kingdom with an all-female population, a lair of seductive spider spirits, and many other scenarios. Throughout the journey, the four disciples have to fend off attacks on their master and teacher Tang Sanzang from various monsters and calamities. Some of the monsters turn out to be escaped celestial beasts belonging to bodhisattvas or Taoist sages and deities.
Towards the end of the book, there is a scene where the Buddha commands the fulfillment of the last disaster, because Tang Sanzang is one short of the 81 tribulations required before attaining Buddhahood. In chapter 87, Tang Sanzang finally reaches the borderlands of India, and chapters 87—99 present magical adventures in a somewhat more mundane setting.
Recent Acquisitions in Chinese studies
At length, after a pilgrimage said to have taken fourteen years the text actually only provides evidence for nine of those years, but presumably there was room to add additional episodes they arrive at the half-real, half-legendary destination of Vulture Peak , where, in a scene simultaneously mystical and comic, Tang Sanzang receives the scriptures from the living Buddha.
Chapter , the final chapter, quickly describes the return journey to the Tang Empire, and the aftermath in which each traveller receives a reward in the form of posts in the bureaucracy of the heavens. He is just called Tripitaka in many English versions of the story.
In return, the disciples will receive enlightenment and forgiveness for their sins once the journey is done. Along the way, they help the local inhabitants by defeating various monsters and demons who try to obtain immortality by eating Tang Sanzang's flesh. He is born on Flower Fruit Mountain from a stone egg that forms from an ancient rock created by the coupling of Heaven and Earth. He first distinguishes himself by bravely entering the Water Curtain Cave on the mountain; for this feat, his monkey tribe gives him the title of "Handsome Monkey King".
This job is a very low position, and when he realises that he was given a low position and not considered a full-fledged god, he becomes very angry. Upon returning to his mountain, he puts up a flag and declares himself the "Great Sage Equal to Heaven".
Then the Jade Emperor dispatches celestial soldiers to arrest Sun Wukong, but no one succeeds. The Jade Emperor has no choice but to appoint him to be the guardian of the heavenly peach garden. The peach trees in the garden bear fruit every 3, years, and eating its flesh will bestow immortality, so Sun Wukong eats nearly all of the ripe peaches.
Mandarin II Vocab
Later, after fairies who come to collect peaches for Xi Wangmu 's heavenly peach banquet inform Sun Wukong he is not invited and make fun of him, he starts causing trouble in Heaven and defeats an army of , celestial troops, led by the Four Heavenly Kings , Erlang Shen , and Nezha. Sun Wukong is kept under the mountain for years, and cannot escape because of a seal that was placed on the mountain. He is later set free when Tang Sanzang comes upon him during his pilgrimage and accepts him as a disciple.
His primary weapon is his staff, the " Ruyi Jingu Bang ", which he can shrink down to the size of a needle and keep in his ear, as well as expand it to gigantic proportions. The rod, which weighs 17, pounds, was originally a pillar supporting the undersea palace of the Dragon King of the East Sea , but he was able to pull it out of its support and can swing it with ease. The Dragon King had told Sun Wukong he could have the staff if he could lift it, but was angry when the monkey was actually able to pull it out and accused him of being a thief; hence Sun Wukong was insulted, so he demanded a suit of armour and refused to leave until he received one.
The Dragon King, unwilling to see a monkey making troubles in his favourite place, also gave him a suit of golden armour. These gifts, combined with his devouring of the peaches of immortality, three jars of elixir, and his time being tempered in Laozi 's Eight-Trigram Furnace he gained a steel-hard body and fiery golden eyes that could see very far into the distance and through any disguise.
He is therefore always able to recognise a demon in disguise while the rest of the pilgrimage cannot. However, his eyes become weak to smoke , makes Sun Wukong the strongest member of the pilgrimage by far. Besides these abilities, he can also pluck hairs from his body and blow on them to convert them into whatever he wishes usually clones of himself to gain a numerical advantage in battle.
Sun's behavior is checked by a band placed around his head by Guanyin , which cannot be removed by Sun Wukong himself until the journey's end. Tang Sanzang can tighten this band by chanting the "Ring Tightening Mantra" taught to him by Guanyin whenever he needs to chastise him.
Tang Sanzang speaks this mantra quickly in repetition. Sun Wukong's childlike playfulness is a huge contrast to his cunning mind. This, coupled with his great power, makes him a trickster hero. His antics present a lighter side in what proposes to be a long and dangerous trip into the unknown.
Once an immortal who was the Marshal of the Heavenly Canopy commanding , naval soldiers of the Milky Way , he drank too much during a celebration of the gods and attempted to harass the moon goddess Chang'e , resulting in his banishment to the mortal world.
He was supposed to be reborn as a human but ended up in the womb of a sow due to an error on the Reincarnation Wheel, which turned him into a half-man, half-pig monster. Zhu Bajie was very greedy, and could not survive without eating ravenously. Staying within the Yunzhan Dong "cloud-pathway cave" , he was commissioned by Guanyin to accompany Tang Sanzang to India and given the new name Zhu Wuneng. However, Zhu Bajie's appetite for women led him to the Gao Family Village, where he posed as a normal being and wedded a maiden.
Later, when the villagers discovered that he was a monster, Zhu Bajie hid the girl away, and the girl wailed bitterly every night.
His weapon of choice is the jiuchidingpa " nine-tooth iron rake ". He is also capable of 36 transformations as compared to Sun Wukong's 72 , and can travel on clouds, but not as fast as Sun. However, Zhu is noted for his fighting skills in the water, which he used to combat Sha Wujing, who later joined them on the journey. He is the second strongest member of the team. Being spiritually the lowest of the group, he remained on Earth and was granted the title "Cleaner of the Altars", presumably giving him the duty to eat excess offerings left on the altars.
He was exiled to the mortal world and made to look like a monster because he accidentally smashed a crystal goblet belonging to the Queen Mother of the West during a Peach Banquet.
The now-hideous immortal took up residence in the Flowing Sands River, terrorising surrounding villages and travellers trying to cross the river. They consequently took him in, as part of the pilgrimage to the West. Sha's weapon is a magic wooden staff wrapped in pearly threads.
He also knows 18 transformation methods and is highly effective in water combat. Sha is known to be the most obedient, logical, and polite of the three disciples, and always takes care of his master, seldom engaging in the bickering of his fellow disciples.
He has no major faults nor any extraordinary characteristics. Perhaps this is why he is sometimes seen as a minor character.
He does however serve as the peacekeeper of the group mediating between Sun and Zhu and even Tang Sanzang and the others. He is also the person whom Tang Sanzang consults when faced with difficult decisions. Sha eventually becomes an arhat at the end of the journey, giving him a higher level of exaltation than Zhu Bajie, who is relegated to cleaning every altar at every Buddhist temple for eternity, but lower spiritually than Sun Wukong or Tang Sanzang, who are granted Buddhahood.
It was translated into English by the BBC. A second season was produced in the late s covering portions of the original work that the first season skipped over. Ho's pop-culture infused take on the story of the Monkey King has been performed to great acclaim.
The main protagonist 'Monkey' is voice acted by Andy Serkis.