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- Full Employment ,Voluntary ,Involuntary ,frictional ,(Lecture 21 Of Macroeconomics), Class 12
- What is Meant by Full Employment? | Economics
- Full employment: an assumption within BLS projections
- Full employment definition pdf format
BLS defines full employment as an economy in which the unemployment rate equals the nonaccelerating inflation rate of unemployment NAIRU , no cyclical unemployment exists, and GDP is at its potential.
The full-employment assumption links BLS projections to an economy running at full capacity and utilizing all of its resources. The Bureau of Labor Statistics BLS develops employment projections of the labor market at the national level covering 10 years into the future. These projections are invaluable for career-planning, training-and-education, and policy-planning purposes. Both jobseekers and those transitioning to a new career are provided valuable information that allows them to prepare for jobs that will be the most in demand.
National projections also are valuable inputs for states, assisting them in producing projections that will support the allocation of resources for job training.
The projection process starts with an estimation of the labor force at the year horizon.
At full employment, unemployment will be at the nonaccelerating inflation rate of unemployment NAIRU and output will be at potential. In addition to projecting the macroeconomic outlook, BLS projects employment for hundreds of occupations 4 and industries, as well as output for hundreds of industries. A full-employment economy is associated with potential output : the sustainable-trend growth of output usually expressed as gross domestic product, or GDP; see figure 1 that occurs while the economy is operating at a high rate of resource use.
Actual output may be above or below potential output at any single point in time. An economy that is operating above potential output is said to be overheating , which occurs when aggregate demand exceeds productive capacity—a situation that is unsustainable in the long term.
By contrast, being below potential output does not necessarily mean that an economy is in recession: the economy could be expanding, but not yet fully recovered from a recession.
In general, the economy bounces back and forth between recessionary and overheating periods, correcting itself when it gets too far from its potential output. There are two types of factors that cause employment levels to change: cyclical factors and structural factors. Structural factors are changes that have their origin in long-lasting, often permanent, changes in the economy, such as automation or demographic changes.
These types of changes can be anticipated and are likely to matter to BLS users, because they have long-term effects on prospective careers and certain types of policy. The full-employment assumption puts the focus on longer term employment changes that are due to structural factors.
The full-employment assumption works by benchmarking BLS projections to the same objective level of output capacity—full, or percent, capacity—each publication round.
Meaning of Full Employment in an Economy
Without the same objective level of output capacity linked to employment levels, structural effects can be masked or incorrectly perceived, based on changes in the business cycle. Setting the objective level to full capacity is the means by which BLS projections exclude cyclicality; levels are therefore determined entirely by structural factors. Moreover, consistently using the same level of output capacity has the added advantage of allowing changes to be evaluated between different projection release dates.
Such evaluation can reveal how the economy has changed structurally between two periods. A consistent objective benchmark for BLS projections is an important tool for identifying structural changes to the economy and is implemented via the full-employment assumption. Being open and explicit about this methodology helps users interpret projections advantageously and use them accordingly.
The assumption of a full-employment economy in the target projection year can have important implications for the BLS projected growth rates and requires one to take into account current cyclical economic conditions when utilizing growth rates.
Large cyclical deviations in the base year of projections can influence growth rates: under such conditions, some of the projected growth will be due to cyclical factors. However, the projected growth rate of potential GDP from published by the U.
Full Employment ,Voluntary ,Involuntary ,frictional ,(Lecture 21 Of Macroeconomics), Class 12
Congressional Budget Office to was 2. This difference implies that 0. See table 1. The same dynamic occurs in individual occupation and industry projections. Current full-employment estimates at individual occupation or industry levels do not exist. Therefore, it is impossible to estimate precisely how much of a growth rate is attributable to cyclicality. However, it is often clear that some cyclical effects are present.
Figure 2, from BLS projections, demonstrates their presence. Both construction and extraction occupations and computer and mathematical occupations had projected growth rates of 2. Upon examination of how much lower the percentage of employment was for construction and extraction occupations in the base projection year compared with , it becomes clear that most, or even all, of the growth is attributable to cyclical factors.
Conversely, employment growth in computer and mathematical occupations over the same timeframe appears to be mostly structural. There is no method for directly measuring full employment. Rather, it is a theoretical state within the economy that must be estimated.
The idea of full employment has evolved over time. Some unemployment is expected, even desired, in a healthy economy as workers transition to new jobs better matching their skill sets or as they acquire and develop additional skills needed by an employer. Newer concepts of full employment require some unemployment to temper inflation. Earlier views, such as those held by Keynes 11 and Beveridge, 12 defined full employment as an economy in which the only unemployment was due to workers transitioning from one job to another.
Structural unemployment is the unemployment of workers who currently lack the skills needed by employers. Both frictional unemployment and structural unemployment involve workers who are searching for a job, but, in order to secure a position, workers who are structurally unemployed must do something in addition to just searching. Some must pursue further education or training, while others must relocate to a different geographical area. Another, more recent view of full employment links employment to inflation.
This theory holds that some unemployment is necessary to control inflation. The relationship between the unemployment rate and the rate of inflation is demonstrated in the Phillips curve. Just as an equilibrium exists in the goods-and-services market when supply equals demand, there exists an equilibrium in the labor market when labor supply equals labor demand.
At this equilibrium, workers are hired at the prevailing wage and inflation is stable. Shocks to the economy knock the labor market out of equilibrium. If the shock is negative, additional unemployment will emerge as labor demand decreases. If this change in labor demand is temporary, it is considered cyclical unemployment; if it is permanent, the change is known as structural unemployment.
Sources of structural changes in labor demand include technology, outsourcing, and demographic changes to the population, among others. Regardless of whether a shock is temporary or permanent, the U. Federal Reserve has some ability to trade higher inflation for lower unemployment in the short run.
This relationship between unemployment and inflation is suggested by the Phillips curve.
What is Meant by Full Employment? | Economics
However, the relationship breaks down over time: individuals begin to expect higher inflation because of increases in prices and wages, and these increases must come at an ever-accelerating rate to support an artificially low unemployment rate.
As discussed earlier, if a shock to labor demand is temporary—a cyclical change—unemployment will return to its preshock level. However, if the shock to labor demand is permanent—a structural change—it will result in a change to the NAIRU and the unemployment level will drift to this new equilibrium.
Shocks also affect local economies to varying degrees: some areas have benefited more from recent technological advances and have lower NAIRUs, while others have been hurt more by outsourcing and have higher NAIRUs. However, without a doubt, changes to labor demand come from both cyclical and structural factors. An economy with both the highest level of sustainable employment and stable inflation can still be an economy in which only frictional and structural unemployment exist.
In addition to including the NAIRU, recent full-employment views link a full-employment economy to potential output. Full employment and a corresponding value for potential output cannot be measured directly.
Instead, a number of methods are available for estimating historical values and projecting future values.
This section summarizes the most common methods. Growth accounting methods model output as a production function incorporating the various factors affecting output. Input factors often are adjusted to their potential. The most popular growth accounting model is the Solow model , which attributes GDP growth to growth in labor, capital, and technological progress. A labor productivity growth model is favored by those who believe that capital is too difficult to measure accurately.
This kind of model ignores capital and estimates output as a function of labor and labor productivity alone. Growth accounting methods assume that the magnitude of the contribution that each factor makes to growth remains the same over time.
The drawback to these techniques is that the trend extracted is not benchmarked to any external measure of capacity. Consequently, the estimates obtained are not necessarily consistent with stable inflation.
In addition, they are subject to end-of-sample problems, in which the trend becomes more responsive to temporary fluctuations in the data toward the end of a sample. Systems of equations can be specified that estimate variables such as output, employment, and inflation together.
Although more complex than either growth accounting methods or statistical filtering techniques, these systems allow the contributions of different factors to GDP to vary over time.
Full employment: an assumption within BLS projections
Systems of equations often include multivariate time series models, such as vector autoregression VAR. For its m acroeconomic projections, BLS uses a system of equations that constitute a structural econometric model of the U.
The system includes a growth model, as well as a VAR that is used for capital projections. Labor interacts with capital and a TFP residual to produce output. Therefore, output is determined not just on the basis of labor but also on that of capital services and potential TFP. Because capital is a factor in potential output, including it is pertinent to the model, despite the difficulty that arises in measuring it.
Capital stock measures the value of capital in the economy; capital services , which stem from capital stocks, measure the contribution of capital to the production process.
Using a capital stock measure weights two pieces of capital the same if they have the same market value, even if their contributions to production are unequal.
Because it is the contribution to production that influences both output and the amount of labor necessary to produce that output, a measure of capital services is preferred. TFP is any growth that is not attributable to capital services or labor.
A growing body of research indicates that current TFP, and therefore likely potential TFP, is lower than it was in previous decades. Deciding what input goes into the MA model is just as important as the model itself, to ensure that the projections obtained are as reasonable as possible. Inputs are adjusted on the basis of 1 current economic research, 2 putting them through alternative BLS models to determine a range of projections, and 3 comparisons with models from other government agencies.
Projections that take account of the information gleaned from these studies are then compared against the currently specified MA model.
Although BLS is not limited to any one internal model, the most commonly used model is a Cobb—Douglas production function part of the Solow growth model discussed earlier.
Full employment definition pdf format
This production function is not as complex as the MA model, but it allows BLS to identify how changes to a single input factor affect output.
The model can be expressed as.
The model itself is relatively straightforward.