First Things First Merrill Pdf To Word

First things first merrill pdf to word

First things first merrill pdf to word

Little did we realize the fantastic potential of this experimental communication from computer to computer. Unfortunately for our subsequent fortunes, none of us in that lab envisioned the Internet and the World Wide Web and the impact that this invention would have on communication, the availability of information, social interaction, commerce, education, and almost every other aspect of our lives.

In , I was doing my student teaching in a junior high school; my subject was American history. Unfortunately for this experience, my major was psychology with a minor in mathematics.

First things first merrill pdf to word

I never had an American history class in my entire college career. This paucity of information left me very underprepared for teaching these students.

Lesson 1: Putting First Things First (Haggai 1:1-15)

However, thanks to the ongoing presidential election Nixon vs Kennedy , there was a debate on television that I could use as a springboard to teach a little about the electoral process, the Electoral College, and something about our two-party system of government.

But today, thanks to the Internet, interested learners can find information about almost anything in the world, whether current events or historical events. Teaching American history to junior high students today would be so much easier because of the almost unlimited amount of information in all different media that is available, including audio, video, animation, as well as text.

But is access to this wealth of information instruction? I repeat, Information alone is not instruction. So, if it is an outcome, what causes motivation?

Motivation comes from learning; the greatest motivation comes when people learn. We are wired to learn; all of us love to learn; every student loves to learn. And, generally, we are motivated by those things that we find we are good at.

In my elementary school we used to divide up into teams during recess to play softball.

First Things First

That was very embarrassing for me, so, I lost interest in sports; I did not want to be a sports person. Consequently, I never pursued sports. On the other hand, somewhere in my youth I was given a scale model train. I became very interested in building a model railroad.

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I have continued to follow this interest throughout my life. Why was I motivated to do this?

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Because I was good at it, because I learned things about how to build a realistic model. The more I learned, the more interested I became. We need to find ways to motivate our students, and that comes from promoting learning.

First things first merrill pdf to word

Learning comes when we apply the effective and engaging principles of instruction. In my experience I have had the opportunity to review many courses.

First things first merrill pdf to word

Figure 1 illustrates a common instructional sequence that I have observed. The course or module consists of a list of topics representing the content of the course. Information about the topic is presented, represented by the arrows. Occasionally a quiz or exercise is inserted to help illustrate the topic, represented by the boxes.

The sequence is to teach one topic at a time. At the end of the course or module there is a culminating final test, or in some cases a final project, that asks the students to apply the topic to complete some t ask or solve some problem. Sometimes this sequence is very effective in enabling students to gain skills or to learn to solve problems.

Stephen R. Covey and his 7 Highly Effective Habits

Too often, however, this sequence is ineffective and not engaging for students. The effectiveness of this sequence and the degree of engagement it promotes for learners depends on the type of learning events that are represented by the arrows and the boxes in this diagram.

There are many different types of instructional or learning events. Perhaps the most frequently used learning event is to present information or Tell. This Tell can take many forms, including lectures, videos, text books, and PowerPoint presentations. The next most frequent instructional or learning event is to have learners remember what they were told, what they read, or what they saw.

M. David Merrill

This remember instructional event we will label as Ask. Even though Tell and Ask are the most frequently used instructional events, if they are the only instructional events used then the Tell — Ask instructional sequence is the least effective instructional strategy.

If the arrows in Figure 1 represent Tell learning events and the boxes represent Ask learning events, then this module is not going to be very effective and most likely will not prepare learners to adequately complete a project using the information taught. If the culminating learning activity is an Ask final exam, learners may be able to score well on this exam. However, a good score on an Ask exam does little to prepare learners to apply the ideas taught to the solution of a complex problem or completion of a complex t ask.

A little history is in order. In the preface to this book he indicates that there are many different kinds of instructional theories and that instructional designers need to be familiar with these different approaches and select the best approach or combination of approaches that they feel are appropriate for their particular instructional situation. I challenged Dr.

First Things First Stephen R Covey A Roger Rebecca R Merrill Hc Dj

Reigeluth, suggesting that while these different theories stressed different aspects of instruction and used different vocabulary to describe their model and methods, that fundamentally, at a deep level, they were all based on a common set of principles. I took the challenge and spent the next year or two studying these various instructional theories.

I have spent the time since in refining my proposition in a series of papers and chapters on First Principles. In , I finally published my book First Principles of Instruction Merrill, that elaborated these principles, provided a set of suggestions for how these principles might be implemented in various models of instruction, and provided a variety of instructional samples that illustrate the implementation of First Principles in a range of content areas and in different educational contexts, including training, public schools, and higher education.

Principles are statements of relationships that are true under appropriate conditions. In instruction these relationships are between different kinds of learning events and the effect that participating in these learning events has on the acquisition of problem-solving skills.

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I identified five general principles that comprise First Principles of Instruction. As I reviewed the literature on instructional design theories and models, I tried to be as parsimonious as possible by selecting only a few general principles that would account for the most fundamental learning activities that are necessary for effective, efficient, and engaging instruction. A frequently cited axiom of education is to start where the learner is.

Activation is the principle that attempts to activate a relevant mental model already acquired by the learner in order to assist him or her to adapt this mental model to the new skills to be acquired. I carefully avoided the word presentation for this principle.

Much instruction consists largely or entirely of presentation. What is often missing is demonstration, show me. Hence, the demonstration principle is best implemented by Tell — Show learning events where appropriate information is accompanied by appropriate examples. Way too much instruction uses remembering information as a primary assessment tool.

But remembering information is insufficient for being able to identify newly encountered instances of some object or event. Remembering is also insufficient to be able to execute a set of steps in a procedure or to grasp the events of a process. Learners need to apply their newly acquired skills to actually doing a t ask or actually solving a problem. Deep learning requires learners to integrate their newly acquired skills into those mental models they have already acquired.

One way to insure this deep processing is for learners to collaborate with other learners in solving problems or doing complex tasks. Another learning event that facilitates deep processing is when learners go public with their knowledge in an effort to critique other learners or to defend their work when it is critiqued by other learners. The eventual purpose of all instruction is to learn to solve complex problems or complete complex tasks, either by themselves or in collaboration with other learners.

This is accomplished best when the problem to be solved or the task to be completed is identified and demonstrated to learners early in the instructional sequence.

Would you say you are highly effective?

Subsequent component skills required for problem solving or for completing a complex task are best acquired in the context of trying to solve a real instance of the problem or complete a real instance of the task.

Do First Principles of Instruction actually promote more effective, efficient, and engaging instruction?

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A study conducted by NETg Thompson Learning, , a company that sells instruction to teach computer applications, compared their off-the-shelf version of their Excel instruction, which is topic-centered, with a problem-centered version of this course that was developed following First Principles. Participants in the experiment came from a number of different companies that were clients of NETg. The assessment for both groups consisted of developing a spreadsheet for three real-world Excel problems.

Audiobook First Things First -Stephen R. Covey

The problem-centered group scored significantly higher, required significantly less time to complete the problems, and expressed a higher level of satisfaction than the topic-centered group. All differences were statistically significant beyond the. A doctoral student at Florida State University completed a dissertation study comparing a topic-centered course teaching Flash programing with a problem-centered course Rosenberg-Kima, This study was carefully controlled so that the variable was merely the arrangement of the skill instruction in the context of problems or taught skill-by-skill.

The learning events for both groups were identical except for the order and context in which they were taught. On a transfer Flash problem that required students to apply their Flash programing skills to a new problem, the problem-centered group scored significantly higher than the topic-centered group and felt the instruction was more relevant and resulted in more confidence in their performance.

There was no time difference between the two groups for completing the final project. The correlations all showed that the extent to which First Principles are included in a course correlates with student rating of instructor quality and their rating of satisfaction with the course. Students also spent more time on task and were judged by their instructors to have made more learning progress when the courses involved First Principles of Instruction.

This data was collected in three different studies. The conclusion that can be drawn from these three different and independent studies of First Principles clearly shows that courses based on First Principles do facilitate effectiveness, efficiency, and learner satisfaction.

By then the course is usually into the heart of the content, and the introductory material is finished. What do I look for first?

First things first merrill pdf to word

Does the content include examples, demonstrations, or simulations of the ideas being taught? Adding demonstration to a course will result in a significant increment in the effectiveness of the course.

First things first merrill pdf to word

Do most courses include such demonstration? MOOCs are a recent very popular way to deliver instruction. They carefully analyzed 76 MOOCs representing a wide variety of content sponsored by a number of different institutions to determine the extent that these courses implemented First Principles of Instruction. Their overall conclusion was that most of these courses failed to implement these principles. The demonstration principle, providing examples of the content being taught, is fundamental for effective instruction and engaging instruction.

How many of these MOOCs implemented this principle? Only 3 out of the 76 MOOCs analyzed included appropriate demonstration. The effectiveness and engagement in these MOOCs could be significantly increased by adding relevant and appropriate demonstration.