Arab Israeli War 1948 Pdf Converter

Arab israeli war 1948 pdf converter

After 26 May : Israel Defense Forces. Arab League :.

Copy Citation

It formally began following the end of the British Mandate for Palestine at midnight on 14 May ; the Israeli Declaration of Independence had been issued earlier that day, and a military coalition of Arab states entered the territory of British Palestine in the morning of 15 May.

The first deaths of the —49 Palestine war occurred on 30 November during an ambush of two buses carrying Jews. British policies dissatisfied both Arabs and Jews. Arabs opposition developed into the — Arab revolt in Palestine , while the Jewish resistance developed into the Jewish insurgency in Palestine — In , these on-going tensions erupted into civil war following the 29 November adoption of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine , which planned to divide Palestine into an Arab state, a Jewish state, and the Special International Regime encompassing the cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem.

On 15 May , the civil war transformed into a conflict between Israel and the Arab states following the Israeli Declaration of Independence the previous day.

The 50 Years War Israel and the Arabs Part 1 Documentary

Egypt, Transjordan, Syria , and expeditionary forces from Iraq entered Palestine. As a result of the war, the State of Israel controlled the area that UN General Assembly Resolution had recommended for the proposed Jewish state, as well as almost percent of the area of Arab state proposed by the Partition Plan, [21] including the Jaffa , Lydda , and Ramle area, Galilee , some parts of the Negev , a wide strip along the Tel Aviv — Jerusalem road, West Jerusalem, and some territories in the West Bank.

Transjordan took control of the remainder of the former British mandate, which it annexed , and the Egyptian military took control of the Gaza Strip. At the Jericho Conference on 1 December , 2, Palestinian delegates called for unification of Palestine and Transjordan as a step toward full Arab unity. Around , Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes in the area that became Israel, and they became Palestinian refugees [23] in what they refer to as Al-Nakba "the catastrophe".

In the three years following the war, about , Jews emigrated to Israel, many of whom had been expelled from their previous homelands in the Middle East. On 29 November , the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of a plan to partition the British Mandate of Palestine into two states, one Arab and one Jewish, and the City of Jerusalem.

The General Assembly resolution on Partition was greeted with overwhelming joy in Jewish communities and widespread outrage in the Arab world. In Palestine, violence erupted almost immediately, feeding into a spiral of reprisals and counter-reprisals.

As nove cartas de cristo pdf

The British refrained from intervening as tensions boiled over into a low-level conflict that quickly escalated into a full-scale civil war. From January onwards, operations became increasingly militarized, with the intervention of a number of Arab Liberation Army regiments inside Palestine, each active in a variety of distinct sectors around the different coastal towns. They consolidated their presence in Galilee and Samaria. Having recruited a few thousand volunteers, al-Husayni organized the blockade of the , Jewish residents of Jerusalem.

By March, Al-Hussayni's tactic had paid off.

1982: Lebanon War

Almost all of Haganah 's armoured vehicles had been destroyed, the blockade was in full operation, and hundreds of Haganah members who had tried to bring supplies into the city were killed. While the Jewish population had received strict orders requiring them to hold their ground everywhere at all costs, [35] the Arab population was more affected by the general conditions of insecurity to which the country was exposed.

Up to , Arabs, from the urban upper and middle classes in Haifa, Jaffa and Jerusalem, or Jewish-dominated areas, evacuated abroad or to Arab centres eastwards.

This situation caused the United States to withdraw its support for the Partition plan, thus encouraging the Arab League to believe that the Palestinian Arabs, reinforced by the Arab Liberation Army, could put an end to the plan for partition. The British, on the other hand, decided on 7 February , to support the annexation of the Arab part of Palestine by Transjordan.

Although a certain level of doubt took hold among Yishuv supporters, their apparent defeats were due more to their wait-and-see policy than to weakness. David Ben-Gurion reorganized Haganah and made conscription obligatory.

Arab israeli war 1948 pdf converter

Every Jewish man and woman in the country had to receive military training. Thanks to funds raised by Golda Meir from sympathisers in the United States, and Stalin's decision to support the Zionist cause, the Jewish representatives of Palestine were able to sign very important armament contracts in the East.

Other Haganah agents recuperated stockpiles from the Second World War, which helped improve the army's equipment and logistics.

Dizionario swedese italiano pdf writer

Operation Balak allowed arms and other equipment to be transported for the first time by the end of March. Ben-Gurion invested Yigael Yadin with the responsibility to come up with a plan of offense whose timing was related to the foreseeable evacuation of British forces. This strategy, called Plan Dalet, was readied by March and implemented towards the end of April. Both sides acted offensively in defiance of the Partition Plan, which foresaw Jerusalem as a corpus separatum , under neither Jewish nor Arab jurisdiction.

The Arabs did not accept the Plan, while the Jews were determined to oppose the internationalization of the city, and secure it as part of the Jewish state. During this time, and independently of Haganah or the framework of Plan Dalet, irregular fighters from Irgun and Lehi formations massacred a substantial number of Arabs at Deir Yassin , an event that, though publicly deplored and criticized by the principal Jewish authorities, had a deep impact on the morale of the Arab population and contributed to generate the exodus of the Arab population.

At the same time, the first large-scale operation of the Arab Liberation Army ended in a debacle, having been roundly defeated at Mishmar HaEmek , [42] coinciding with the loss of their Druze allies through defection.

1948 Arab–Israeli War

Within the framework of the establishment of Jewish territorial continuity foreseen by Plan Dalet, the forces of Haganah, Palmach and Irgun intended to conquer mixed zones.

The Palestinian Arab society was shaken. The British had, at that time, essentially withdrawn their troops. The situation pushed the leaders of the neighbouring Arab states to intervene, but their preparation was not finalized, and they could not assemble sufficient forces to turn the tide of the war.

The majority of Palestinian Arab hopes lay with the Arab Legion of Transjordan's monarch, King Abdullah I, but he had no intention of creating a Palestinian Arab-run state, since he hoped to annex as much of the territory of the British Mandate for Palestine as he could.

He was playing a double-game, being just as much in contact with the Jewish authorities as with the Arab League.

by Yoav Gelber (July 2009)

In preparation for the offensive, Haganah successfully launched Operations Yiftah [45] and Ben-'Ami [46] to secure the Jewish settlements of Galilee , and Operation Kilshon , which created a united front around Jerusalem. The inconclusive meeting between Golda Meir and Abdullah I, followed by the Kfar Etzion massacre on 13 May by the Arab Legion led to predictions that the battle for Jerusalem would be merciless.

On 14 May , David Ben-Gurion declared the establishment of the State of Israel and the Palestine war entered its second phase with the intervention of the Arab state armies and the beginning of the Arab—Israeli War. In , Ben-Gurion decided that the Yishuv would probably have to defend itself against both the Palestinian Arabs and neighbouring Arab states and accordingly began a "massive, covert arms acquisition campaign in the West", and acquired many more during the first few months of hostilities.

Arab israeli war 1948 pdf converter

The Yishuv managed to clandestinely amass arms and military equipment abroad for transfer to Palestine once the British blockade was lifted. In the United States , Yishuv agents purchased three Boeing B Flying Fortress bombers, one of which bombed Cairo in July , some Curtiss C Commando transport planes, and dozens of half-tracks, which were repainted and defined as "agricultural equipment". In Western Europe, Haganah agents amassed fifty 65mm French mountain guns, twelve mm mortars, ten H light tanks, and a large number of half-tracks.

Arab israeli war 1948 pdf converter

By mid-May or thereabouts the Yishuv had purchased from Czechoslovakia 25 Avia S fighters an inferior version of the Messerschmitt Bf , heavy machine guns, 5, light machine guns, 24, rifles, and 52 million rounds of ammunition, enough to equip all units, but short of heavy arms.

The airborne smuggling missions were carried out by mostly American aviators — Jews and non-Jews — led by ex-U. Air Transport Command flight engineer Al Schwimmer.

Schwimmer's operation also included recruiting and training fighter pilots such as Lou Lenart , commander of the first Israeli air assault against the Arabs. They were inaccurate but had a spectacularly loud explosion that demoralized the enemy. A large amount of the munitions used by the Israelis came from the Ayalon Institute , a clandestine bullet factory underneath kibbutz Ayalon , which produced about 2.

The munitions produced by the Ayalon Institute were said to have been the only supply that was not in shortage during the war. Locally produced explosives were also plentiful.

1948–49: Israel’s War of Independence and the Palestinian Nakbah

After Israel's independence, these clandestine arms manufacturing operations no longer had to be concealed, and were moved above ground. All of the Haganah's weapons-manufacturing was centralized and later became Israel Military Industries. In November , the Haganah was an underground paramilitary force that had existed as a highly organized, national force, since the Arab riots of — 21 , and throughout the riots of , Great Uprising of —39 , [47] and World War 2.

It had a mobile force, the HISH , which had 2, full-time fighters men and women and 10, reservists all aged between 18 and 25 and an elite unit, the Palmach composed of 2, fighters and 1, reservists.

The reservists trained three or four days a month [ citation needed ] and went back to civilian life the rest of the time. Guard Corps , composed of people aged over The Yishuv's total strength was around 35, with 15, to 18, fighters and a garrison force of roughly 20, There were also several thousand men and women who had served in the British Army in World War II who did not serve in any of the underground militias but would provide valuable military experience during the war.

Five days later, a General Mobilization order was issued for all men under The Irgun, whose activities were considered by MI5 to be terrorism, was monitored by the British.

Arab israeli war 1948 pdf converter

By March , the Yishuv had a numerical superiority, with 35, mobilised and deployed fighters for the Haganah , [58] [59] 3, of Stern and Irgun , and a few thousand armed settlers. The effective number of Arab combatants is listed at 12, by some historians [61] while others calculate a total Arab strength of approximately 23, troops, and with this being more of less or roughly equal to that of the Yishuv.

Arab-Israeli wars

However, as Israel mobilized most of its most able citizens during the war while the Arab troops were only a small percentage of its far greater population, the strength of the Yishuv grew steadily and dramatically during the war. According to Benny Morris, by the end of , the Palestinians "had a healthy and demoralising respect for the Yishuv's military power" and if it came to battle the Palestinians expected to lose.

Yishuv 's aims evolved during the war. As the war progressed, the aim of expanding the Jewish state beyond the UN partition borders appeared: first to incorporate clusters of isolated Jewish settlements and later to add more territories to the state and give it defensible borders.

A third and further aim that emerged among the political and military leaders after four or five months was to "reduce the size of Israel's prospective large and hostile Arab minority, seen as a potential powerful fifth column , by belligerency and expulsion".

If no resistance was met, the residents could stay put, under military rule.

Report Abuse

N sponsored Jewish state, several concentrations of Jewish population outside those areas West Jerusalem and Western Galilee , and areas along the roads where the invading Arab armies were expected to attack. The intent of Plan Dalet is subject to much controversy, with historians on the one extreme asserting that it was entirely defensive, and historians on the other extreme asserting that the plan aimed at maximum conquest and expulsion of the Palestinians.

The Yishuv perceived the peril of an Arab invasion as threatening its very existence. Having no real knowledge of the Arabs' true military capabilities, the Jews took Arab propaganda literally, preparing for the worst and reacting accordingly.

The Arab League had unanimously rejected the UN partition plan and were bitterly opposed to the establishment of a Jewish state.

The Arab League before partition affirmed the right to the independence of Palestine, while blocking the creation of a Palestinian government.

Navigation menu

In April with the Palestinian defeat, the refugees coming from Palestine and the pressure of their public opinion, the Arab leaders decided to invade Palestine.

The Arab League gave reasons for its invasion in Palestine in the cablegram : [73]. British diplomat Alec Kirkbride wrote in his memoirs about a conversation with the Arab League's Secretary-General Azzam Pasha a week before the armies marched: " We will sweep them into the sea.

Arab israeli war 1948 pdf converter

According to Yoav Gelber , the Arab countries were "drawn into the war by the collapse of the Palestinian Arabs and the Arab Liberation Army [and] the Arab governments' primary goal was preventing the Palestinian Arabs' total ruin and the flooding of their own countries by more refugees.

According to their own perception, had the invasion not taken place, there was no Arab force in Palestine capable of checking the Haganah's offensive".

King Abdullah was the commander of the Arab Legion , the strongest Arab army involved in the war according to Rogan and Shlaim in In —47, Abdullah said that he had no intention to "resist or impede the partition of Palestine and creation of a Jewish state. In order to keep their support to his plan of annexation of the Arab State, Abdullah promised to the British he would not attack the Jewish State.

The neighbouring Arab states pressured Abdullah into joining them in an "all-Arab military invasion" against the newly created State of Israel, that he used to restore his prestige in the Arab world, which had grown suspicious of his relatively good relationship with Western and Jewish leaders. While repeating assurances that Jordan would only take areas allocated to a future Arab State, on the eve of war Tawfik Abu al-Huda told the British that were other Arab armies to advance against Israel, Jordan would follow suit.

Abdullah's role in this war became substantial. He saw himself as the "supreme commander of the Arab forces" and "persuaded the Arab League to appoint him" to this position. King Farouk of Egypt was anxious to prevent Abdullah from being seen as the main champion of the Arab world in Palestine, which he feared might damage his own leadership aspirations of the Arab world.

Nuri as-Said , the strongman of Iraq, had ambitions for bringing the entire Fertile Crescent under Iraqi leadership.