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Science in the Age of Enlightenment
YouTube allows its users to easily create videos by offering standardized video uploading formats like Windows Media Video or QuickTime so that content of any quality can be uploaded. While much of its content consists of amateur home videos, YouTube also serves as a platform for advertisers and companies to provide professional content. One year after its creation, the major conglomerate Google, Inc. Today, YouTube is available in 26 different countries and 43 languages.
More videos are uploaded to YouTube in 60 days than the three major Unites States television networks have compiled in the past 60 years. According to Jurgen Habermas, the public sphere is a communicative space where people conduct rational-critical deliberation about various public matters.
From there, citizens can discuss these issues to come to a solution. Habermas believes that the public sphere should only include important issues such as politics and not spotlight celebrities, sports, or entertainment.
It is not a space for sensationalism or commercialism. Many viewers tune into YouTube videos specifically for sensationalized, commercialized videos for entertainment. YouTube Town Hall allows users to select an issue they are passionate about from a running list at the top of the page and then two members of the United States Congress will appear on the screen that support two opposing sides of the issue at hand.
After the user views the two videos and casts their vote on which Congressman they support, the party affiliation of both Congressmen is revealed. This happens after the viewing to neutralize the effect of party bias. The videos with the most positive user support are then backed on the YouTube Town Hall Leaderboard where Congressmen with the most praised ideas are highlighted. Since access is granted to all citizens who use YouTube Town Hall, there is a sense of openness that ensures all ideas are accessible and are up for debate.
Alan McKee reinforced this principle by recognizing that democracy was introduced and the public sphere began to form when "ordinary" people were allowed to become involved in making decisions about how the country should be run. When the power moved away from the absolute ruler and towards "the people," "the state" was separated from the ruler.
YouTube Town Hall encourages that there is no sole apparatus governing the people, but instead, that through rational debate, ordinary people have the ability to govern themselves. According to Robert McChesney, this concept of participatory self-government requires a sense of community and that there is an effective system of political communication that is broadly construed to inform and engage citizenry, drawing people meaningfully into the political issues at hand Barkin, YouTube Town Hall successfully ensures democratic participation by encouraging viewers to vote on each issue and also respond to Congressmen with questions they have of their own that they would like to have debated.
YouTube users are able to pose questions they would like members of Congress to debate, and every month, these Congress members review the viewers' top-voted question to create a selection of new videos in response to the questions of the people.
Several hot-topic issues include the budget, the economy, the energy crisis, Afghanistan, education, and healthcare.
If a YouTube user is really passionate about a certain issue, they have the ability to share that issue with their friends at their fingertips. With this multifaceted YouTube channel, viewers have the option to either complain to the leaders or be a leader themselves. Every couple of months, YouTube collects information from YouTube Town Hall feedback to see how the parties and ideas fare amongst viewers.
Typically, Republican Congressmen receive the most views and Democratic Congressmen receive the most votes. Scripts of debates are also analyzed to see which keywords are most frequently spoken by each party. It is one of the eight different YouTube primary sectors listed at the top of the YouTube homepage.
Critical Thinking Test - Types of Question
It brings learners and educators together in a digital class room that includes academic lectures, inspirational speeches, and many other educational resources. YouTube users have access to lessons from top teachers all over the world along with course lectures from MIT, Stanford, and other prestigious universities.
These resources spark teaching inspiration within educators along with creating conversations amongst students.
This facet of YouTube EDU allows access to thousands of educational videos and video playlists separated by subject and grade level on YouTube EDU that can be implemented within any given school network. If a school decides to set up a YouTube for Schools account, it can help to encourage a controlled and safe learning environment for students where only appropriate videos can be accessed on school grounds.
Teachers are able to create playlists of videos for specific courses in their network and can even suggest these custom-playlists to other educators all around the world. This teacher-friendly feature on YouTube helps teachers to spend more time teaching and less time searching.
According to Neil Postman in , one of our biggest goals was to achieve media consciousness, which would help us to understand how we are choosing to consume different types of media including how we view videos on YouTube today.
In , teachers were not oblivious to the effects that TV was having on their students. When the computer arrived, the effects of TV on human intellect were greatly discussed.
This particular area of media consciousness had educators focused on how they could use the TV or computer to control education or how they could use education to control the TV or computer.
Rhetoric and Writing in the Public Sphere: An Introduction/Technology and the Public Sphere
While educators embrace YouTube For Schools, students are being turned away from sensationalized and commercialized videos that are centered around celebrities, sports, and entertainment and are instead directed to educational videos that pertain to discussions they are having in the classroom. YouTube Moderator is an option for a YouTube user to create an online discussion, linked to their account, in an easy and democratic way. This feature allows YouTube users to collect commentary, questions or ideas pertaining to their YouTube channel and see which of these responses are rated with the most positive feedback.
The user acts as a moderator and is able to select a group of other users to conduct a discussion with, or leave it open to the YouTube public, choose a topic of their choice, and then use collective wisdom gained from the responses of others to vote on the best submission to a discussion and determine how these submissions can be used to contribute to the conversation on an even greater scale.
It is possible for the YouTube Moderator to respond to individual submissions or to respond to the entire conversation in a one-to-many debate.
However, questions can even be collected from a discussion to be submitted as a potential YouTube interview for President Obama. The YouTube Moderator feature is ideal for when these conversations with many conflicting viewpoints arise. However, it is imperative that these conversations are not ignored altogether because Habermas believed that social movements are desirable because they encourage an ongoing process of collective discussion within society.
Concepts that are in reality distorted and not logical, maintain their legitimacy even though they could not be proven correct if they were topics of rational discourse.
Cultural Participation refers to the interaction, intervening and distribution of information by YouTube users. Additionally, there are 35 hours of video uploaded to YouTube every minute.
YouTube provides massive streams of digital information daily, available for intervention, commentary and change at any time. The high level of worldwide interaction and immediate distribution that YouTube provides enhance participation and has effectively created a new media culture. No longer does one simply interact with a computer; now, streaming a YouTube video connects the viewer to a user-controlled, complex worldwide culture.
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The Internet provides users with readily available content, information, art and news just waiting to be mixed and re-mixed on YouTube. YouTube offers a platform for citizens to create debate, modify and build on ideas however they see fit. Capturing and sharing creativity encourages citizens to express opinions and potentially change policies as well as the culture they are a part of.
The creation and sheer usage of YouTube alone has contributed greatly to a shift in the public sphere. Democracy relies on freedom of expression and the ability of citizens to discuss societal issues and form public opinion. Any citizen with adequate Internet access and software can interact with content posted on YouTube. Videos related to a Police pepper-spraying incident have reached over 2 million views, sparking intense controversy all over the country.
YouTube provides a platform for rational deliberation, an important aspect of democracy and the public sphere. Since its conception six years ago, YouTube has gone from a video sharing site to a website that has reshaped the Internet, media and political landscapes. While YouTube provides a platform that encourages discourse and change, it has some significant limitations.
There are various factors that prevent YouTube from reaching its full potential in contributing to the public sphere. The most notable limitation YouTube has in regards to the public sphere is that a major conglomerate, Google, Inc, owns it. Users have ownership rights to the videos they upload, but YouTube has license to what happens to the video after it is uploaded. The following language from the user agreement demonstrates the issue:. So, while YouTube allows for the potential exposure of a video, the site can also use the video for market research, financial profits, or to gain political power.
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YouTube does not offer superb quality videos and allows only relatively short video times in order to comply with large conglomerates. Additionally, YouTube does not allow their videos to be downloaded, only streamed. This means that creative freedom is allowed while making a YouTube video, but cannot be creatively altered after the video has been created. By being a member of YouTube, one essentially trusts the site not to access or abuse private and personal information and not to manipulate videos.
If videos and information are manipulated, no matter how minute the detail, media fragmentation becomes a massive issue that is difficult or possibly impossible to overcome. A message can be easily and skillfully skewed, exaggerated and distorted.
This fragmented information can then be disseminated to millions of viewers, creating a huge rift in the public sphere. While rational discourse is the objective for YouTube and the public sphere, it is easy for citizens to become unknowingly misinformed, resulting in irrational discussion and false conclusions.
YouTube has created an entirely new culture primed for participation and democracy. While it has limitations, YouTube has the potential to act solely as a tool for the public, free of negative influence from the conglomerate it is owned by. In order for YouTube to be only a public tool, policies must remain neutral on content but regulate structure so that easy access can be provided. Policy should provide general rules and flexible copyright regulations with extremely easy accessibility and high-quality format options.
Only then can this platform be truly user-generated and act as a meta-world of different cultures, ideas and most importantly: a catalyst for change. Barkin, S. American television news: The media marketplace and the public interest. New York, New York: Armonk.
Foss, K. Contemporary perspectives on rhetoric 3rd ed. Get more into learning.
Anne thomson critical reasoning pdf to jpg
Moderator on YouTube. Valtysson, B. Access culture: Web 2. International Journal Of Cultural Policy, 16 2 , YouTube town hall. Hank and John Green started their vlogbrothers channel on January 1, as a challenge to cease all text-based communication and vlog every day for one year.
This was the only way they could communicate with each other for the entire year. The project was known as Brotherhood 2. On December 31, , Brotherhood 2. As of April 30, they have uploaded videos, , subscribers, and ,, video views.
Though many of their videos are fun and random, Hank and John like to bring our attention to issues they deem important from time to time. They have also started spin-off channels such as truthorfail , hankgames , crashcourse , scishow , and hankschannel.