Bike India August 2013 Pdf

Bike india august 2013 pdf

An electric bicycle also known as an e-bike is a bicycle with an integrated electric motor which can be used for propulsion. Many kinds of e-bikes are available worldwide, from e-bikes that only have a small motor to assist the rider's pedal-power i. All retain the ability to be pedalled by the rider and are therefore not electric motorcycles. In some markets, such as Germany as of [update] , they are gaining in popularity and taking some market share away from conventional bicycles, [1] while in others, such as China as of [update] , they are replacing fossil fuel -powered mopeds and small motorcycles.

Depending on local laws, many e-bikes e.

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This exempts them from the more stringent laws regarding the certification and operation of more powerful two-wheelers which are often classed as electric motorcycles. E-bikes can also be defined separately and treated under distinct Electric bicycle laws. E-bikes are the electric motor -powered versions of motorized bicycles , which have been in use since the late 19th century.

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Some bicycle-sharing systems use them. In the s, electric bicycles were documented within various U. For example, on 31 December , Ogden Bolton Jr.

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Patent , for a battery-powered bicycle with "6-pole brush-and-commutator direct current DC hub motor mounted in the rear wheel". There were no gears and the motor could draw up to amperes A from a volt battery. Two years later, in , Hosea W. Libbey of Boston invented an electric bicycle U. Patent , that was propelled by a "double electric motor". The motor was designed within the hub of the crankset axle.

By a rear-wheel drive electric bicycle, which used a driving belt along the outside edge of the wheel, was patented by Mathew J.

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Also, the U. Wood Jr. Patent 3,, Torque sensors and power controls were developed in the late s. For example, Takada Yutky of Japan filed a patent in for such a device.

Bike india august 2013 pdf

In Vector Services Limited offered and sold an e-bike dubbed Zike. Despite the Zike, in hardly any commercial e-bikes were available. Yamaha, a Japanese automotive giant built one of the early prototypes of ebike back in and invented the pedal assist system in By contrast, according to Gardner, in regular bicycle production decreased from its peak million units.

Bike india august 2013 pdf

American car icon, Lee Iacocca founded EV Global motors in , a company that produced an electric bicycle model named E-bike SX and it was one of the early efforts to popularize ebikes in the United States. Performance varies; however, in general there is an increase in range and speed with the latter battery types. By the terms e-bike, power bike, " pedelec ", pedal-assisted, and power-assisted bicycle were commonly used to refer to e-bikes.

In a parallel hybrid motorized bicycle, such as the aforementioned invention by Hosea W. Libbey, human and motor inputs are mechanically coupled either in the bottom bracket , the rear wheel, or the front wheel, whereas in a mechanical series hybrid cycle, the human and motor inputs are coupled through differential gearing.

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In an electronic series hybrid cycle, human power is converted into electricity and is fed directly into the motor and mostly additional electricity is supplied from a battery. By e-bikes were thought to make up 10 to 20 percent of all two-wheeled vehicles on the streets of many major Chinese cities. E-bikes are classed according to the power that their electric motor can deliver and the control system, i.

Also the classification of e-bikes is complicated as much of the definition is due to legal reasons of what constitutes a bicycle and what constitutes a moped or motorcycle.

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As such, the classification of these e-bikes varies greatly across countries and local jurisdictions. Despite these legal complications, the classification of e-bikes is mainly decided by whether the e-bike's motor assists the rider using a pedal-assist system or by a power-on-demand one.

Definitions of these are as follows:. E-bikes with pedal-assist only are usually called pedelecs but can be broadly classified into pedelecs proper and the more powerful S-Pedelecs.

Bike india august 2013 pdf

The term " pedelec " from ped al ele ctric c ycle refers to a pedal-assist e-bike with a relatively low-powered electric motor and a decent but not excessive top speed.

Pedelecs are legally classed as bicycles rather than low-powered motorcycles or mopeds. The most influential definition of pedelecs and which are not comes from the EU. EU directive EN standard for motor vehicles considers a bicycle to be a pedelec if:.

An e-bike conforming to these conditions is considered to be a pedelec in the EU and is legally classed as a bicycle. The EN standard is valid across the whole of the EU and has also been adopted by some non-EU European nations and also some non-European jurisdictions such as the state of Victoria in Australia. Pedelecs are much like conventional bicycles in use and function — the electric motor only provides assistance, for example, when the rider is climbing or struggling against a headwind.

Pedelecs are therefore especially useful for people in hilly areas where riding a bike would prove too strenuous for many to consider taking up cycling as a daily means of transport.

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They are also useful for riders who more generally need some assistance, e. More powerful pedelecs which are not legally classed as bicycles are dubbed S-Pedelecs short for Schnell-Pedelecs , i.

Speedy-Pedelecs in Germany. These have a motor more powerful than watts and less limited, or unlimited, pedal-assist, i. S-Pedelec class e-bikes are therefore usually classified as mopeds or motorcycles rather than as bicycles and therefore may depending on the jurisdiction need to be registered and insured, the rider may need some sort of driver's license either car or motorcycle and motorcycle helmets may have to be worn.

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Some e-bikes combine both pedal-assist sensors as well as a throttle. Some e-bikes have an electric motor that operates on a power-on-demand basis only. In this case, the electric motor is engaged and operated manually using a throttle, which is usually on the handgrip just like the ones on a motorbike or scooter.

These sorts of e-bikes often, but not always, have more powerful motors than pedelecs do. Some power-on-demand only e-bikes can hardly be confused with, let alone categorised as, bicycles.

For example, the Noped is a term used by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario for e-bikes which do not have pedals or in which the pedals have been removed from their motorised bicycle. These are better categorised as electric mopeds or electric motorcycles.

E-bike usage worldwide has experienced rapid growth since China is the world's leading producer of e-bikes. According to the data of the China Bicycle Association, a government-chartered industry group, in China's manufacturers sold 7. A total of , e-bikes were sold in Europe in , up from , in and , units in The two most common types of hub motors used in electric bicycles are brushed and brushless. Many configurations are available, varying in cost and complexity; direct-drive and geared motor units are both used.

An electric power-assist system may be added to almost any pedal cycle using chain drive, belt drive, hub motors or friction drive. BLDC hub motors are a common modern design. The motor is built into the wheel hub itself, while the stator is fixed solidly to the axle, and the magnets are attached to and rotating with the wheel.

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The bicycle wheel hub is the motor. Another type of electric assist motor, often referred to as the mid-drive system, is increasing in popularity. With this system, the electric motor is not built into the wheel but is usually mounted near often under the bottom bracket shell.

In more typical configurations, a cog or wheel on the motor drives a belt or chain that engages with a pulley or sprocket fixed to one of the arms of the bicycle's crankset. Thus the propulsion is provided at the pedals rather than at the wheel, being eventually applied to the wheel via the bicycle's standard drive train.

Because the power is applied through the chain and sprocket, power is typically limited to around — watts to protect against fast wear on the drivetrain. An electric mid-drive combined with an internal gear hub at the back hub may require care due to the lack of a clutch mechanism to soften the shock to the gears at the moment of re-engagement.

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A continuously variable transmission or a fully automatic internal gear hub may reduce the shocks due to the viscosity of oils used for liquid coupling instead of the mechanical couplings of the conventional internal gear hubs. E-bikes use rechargeable batteries , electric motors and some form of control. Batteries vary according to the voltage, total charge capacity amp hours , weight, the number of charging cycles before performance degrades, and ability to handle over-voltage charging conditions.

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The energy costs of operating e-bikes are small, but there can be considerable battery replacement costs. The lifespan of a battery pack varies depending on the type of usage. Range is a key consideration with e-bikes, and is affected by factors such as motor efficiency, battery capacity, efficiency of the driving electronics, aerodynamics, hills and weight of the bike and rider.

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There are also experiments using fuel cells. Some experiments have also been undertaken with super capacitors to supplement or replace batteries for cars and some SUVS. E-bikes developed in Switzerland in the late s for the Tour de Sol solar vehicle race came with solar charging stations but these were later fixed on roofs and connected so as to feed into the electric mains. While ebike batteries were produced mainly by bigger companies in past, many small to medium companies have started using innovative new methods for creating more durable batteries.

State of the art, custom built automated precision CNC spot welding machines [42] created battery packs [43] are commonly used among Do-it-yourself ebike makers.

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There are two distinct types of controllers designed to match either a brushed motor or brushless motor. Brushless motors are becoming more common as the cost of controllers continues to decrease. See the page on DC motors which covers the differences between these two types. Controllers for brushless motors : E-bikes require high initial torque and therefore models that use brushless motors typically have Hall sensor commutation for speed and angle measurement. An electronic controller provides assistance as a function of the sensor inputs, the vehicle speed and the required force.

The controllers generally allow input by means of potentiometer or Hall Effect twist grip or thumb-operated lever throttle , closed-loop speed control for precise speed regulation, protection logic for over-voltage, over-current and thermal protection. Bikes with a pedal assist function typically have a disc on the crank shaft featuring a ring of magnets coupled with a Hall sensor giving rise to a series of pulses, the frequency of which is proportional to pedaling speed.

The controller uses pulse width modulation to regulate the power to the motor. Sometimes support is provided for regenerative braking but infrequent braking and the low mass of bicycles limits recovered energy.

Bike india august 2013 pdf

Controllers for brushed motors : Brushed motors are also used in e-bikes but are becoming less common due to their intrinsic lower efficiency. Controllers for brushed motors however are much simpler and cheaper due to the fact they do not require hall sensor feedback and are typically designed to be open-loop controllers.

Some controllers can handle multiple voltages.